Document

Report
Topic 2
2.1 Project Management Context
2.2 Project Management Processes
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 1
This week
• Reading
• Topics 1 & 2
• Tutorial
• Hand in Weekly Report for topic 2
• Template on FTP & WebCT sites.
• Diagnostic writing test
• Practical exercises.
• Skills
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 2
Topic 2 reading
• Essential
• Schwalbe Chapters 2 & 3
• Recommended
• PMBOK Chapters 2 & 3
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 3
Topics for today
2.1 Project Management Context
2.2 Project Management Processes
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 4
Learning Objectives
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
• Explain the systems view of project management and
how it applies to information technology projects
• Analyze a formal organization using the structural,
human resources, political, and symbolic organizational
frames
• Explain the differences among functional, matrix, and
project organizational structures
• Explain why stakeholder management and top
management commitment are critical for a project’s
success
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 5
Topic 2.1 - Learning Objectives
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
• Explain the concept, development,
implementation, and close-out phases of the
project life cycle
• Distinguish between project development and
product development
• Discuss the unique attributes and diverse
nature of information technology projects
• List the skills and attributes of a good project
manager in general and in the information
technology field
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 6
Projects Cannot Be Run in Isolation
• Projects must operate in a broad
organizational environment
• Project managers need to take a holistic or
systems view of a project and understand
how it is situated within the larger
organization
• See example in opening and closing case
to illustrate this concept
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 7
A Systems View of Project Management
• A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to
describe a more analytical approach to
management and problem solving
• Three parts include:
• Systems philosophy: View things as systems,
interacting components working within an environment
to fulfill some purpose
• Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
• Systems management: Address business,
technological, and organizational issues before making
changes to systems
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 8
Three Sphere Model for Systems Management
Understanding Organizations
Structural frame:
Focuses on roles and
responsibilities,
coordination and control.
Organizational charts help
define this frame.
Human resources frame:
Focuses on providing
harmony between needs of
the organization and needs
of people.
Political frame:
Assumes organizations
are coalitions composed
of varied individuals and
interest groups. Conflict
and power are key
issues.
Symbolic frame: Focuses
on symbols and meanings
related to events. Culture
is important.
What Went Wrong?
Many enterprise resource planning (ERP) projects fail due to
organisational issues. For example, Sobey’s Canadian grocery store
chain abandoned its two-year, $90 million ERP system due to
organizational problems.
As Dalhousie University Associate Professor Sunny Marche states,
“The problem of building an integrated system that can
accommodate different people is a very serious challenge. You can’t
divorce technology from the sociocultural issues. They have an
equal role.” Sobey’s ERP system shut down for five days and
employees were scrambling to stock potentially empty shelves in
several stores for weeks. The system failure cost Sobey’s more than
$90 million and caused shareholders to take an 82-cent after-tax hit
per share.*
*Hoare, Eva. “Software hardships,” The Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia (2001)
Many Organizations Focus on the Structural
Frame
• Most people understand what
organizational charts are
• Many new managers try to change
organizational structure when other
changes are needed
• 3 basic organizational structures
• functional
• project
• matrix
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 12
Basic Organizational Structures
Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
The organizational
structure influences
the project
manager’s authority,
but project
managers need to
remember to
address the human
resources, political,
and symbolic
frames, too.
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 14
The Importance of Project Stakeholders
• Recall that project stakeholders are the people
involved in or affected by project activities
• Project managers must take time to identify,
understand, and manage relationships with all
project stakeholders
• Using the four frames of organizations can help
meet stakeholder needs and expectations
• Senior executives are very important stakeholders
Stakeholder Analysis
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 15
Example
• Electronic Warfare
• Users touch-type experts
• End system was designed mouse-driven
• Could not used. The system was scrapped.
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 16
Question
• For the School of IT website, who are all of
the project stakeholders?
• List as many as you can on your own for 1
minute.
• Compare with a partner for another minute.
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 17
What Helps Projects Succeed?
According to the Standish Group’s report “CHAOS 2001: A
Recipe for Success,” the following items help IT projects
succeed, in order of importance:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Executive support
User involvement
Experienced project manager
Clear business objectives
Minimized scope
Standard software infrastructure
Firm basic requirements
Formal methodology
Reliable estimates
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 18
Need for Top Management Commitment
• Several studies cite top management
commitment as one of the key factors
associated with project success
• Top management can help project
managers secure adequate resources, get
approval for unique project needs in a
timely manner, receive cooperation from
people throughout the organization, and
learn how to be better leaders
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 19
Need for Organizational Commitment to
Information Technology
• If the organization has a negative attitude
toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project
to succeed
• Having a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at
a high level in the organization helps IT
projects
• Assigning non-IT people to IT projects also
encourages more commitment
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 20
Need for Organizational Standards
• Standards and guidelines help project
managers be more effective
• Senior management can encourage
• the use of standard forms and software for
project management
• the development and use of guidelines for
writing project plans or providing status
information
• the creation of a project management office or
centre of excellence
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 21
Question
• How can you tell if a project uses standards
or not?
• What types of standards would be useful?
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 22
Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
• A project life cycle is a collection of project
phases
• Project phases vary by project or industry,
but some general phases include
•
•
•
•
concept
development
implementation
support
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 23
Phases of the Project Life Cycle
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 24
Product Life Cycles
• Products also have life cycles
• The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a
framework for describing the phases involved in
developing and maintaining information systems
• Systems development projects can follow
• predictive models: the scope of the project can be
clearly articulated and the schedule and cost can be
predicted
• adaptive models: projects are mission driven and
component based, using time-based cycles to meet
target dates
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 25
Predictive Model
• Example: Waterfall Lifecycle
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 26
Predictive Life Cycle Models
• Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of
systems development and support
• Spiral model: shows that software is developed
using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a
linear approach
• Incremental release model: provides for
progressive development of operational software
• Prototyping model: is used for developing
prototypes to clarify user requirements
• RAD model: is used to produce systems quickly
without sacrificing quality
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 27
Adaptive Life Cycle Models
• Extreme Programming (XP): Developers program
in pairs and must write the tests for their own
code. XP teams include developers, managers,
and users
• Scrum: Repetitions of iterative development are
referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days. Teams often meet every day for a short
meeting, called a scrum, to decide what to
accomplish that day. Works best for objectoriented technology projects and requires strong
leadership to coordinate the work
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 28
Question
• Which type of life cycle would be best for:
• Development of a game
• Accounts payable system
• Why?
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 29
Project Life Cycles vs. Product Life Cycles
• The project life cycle
• Applies to all projects, regardless of the products being
produced
• Product life cycle models
• Vary considerably based on the nature of the product
• Most large IT systems are developed as a series
of projects
• Project management is done in all of the product
life cycle phases
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 30
Why Have Project Phases & Mangt Reviews?
• A project should successfully pass through
each of the project phases in order to
continue on to the next
• Management reviews (also called phase
exits or kill points) should occur after each
phase to evaluate the project’s progress,
likely success, and continued compatibility
with organizational goals
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 31
What Went Right?
"The real improvement that I saw was in our ability toin the words
of Thomas Edisonknow when to stop beating a dead
horse.…Edison's key to success was that he failed fairly often; but as
he said, he could recognize a dead horse before it started to smell...as
a result he had 14,000 patents and was very successful…In IT we ride
dead horsesfailing projectsa long time before we give up. But
what we are seeing now is that we are able to get off them; able to
reduce cost overrun and time overrun. That's where the major impact
came on the success rate.”
Cabanis, Jeannette, "'A Major Impact': The Standish Group's Jim Johnson On
Project Management and IT Project Success," PM Network, PMI, September
1998, p. 7
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 32
The Context of IT Projects
• IT projects can be very diverse in terms of
size, complexity, products produced,
application area, and resource
requirements
• IT project team members often have diverse
backgrounds and skill sets
• IT projects use diverse technologies that
change rapidly. Even within one technology
area, people must be highly specialized
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 33
Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*
• Define scope of project
• Identify stakeholders, decisionmakers, and escalation
procedures
• Develop detailed task list (work
breakdown structures)
• Estimate time requirements
• Develop initial project
management flow chart
• Identify required resources and
budget
• Evaluate project requirements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify and evaluate risks
Prepare contingency plan
Identify interdependencies
Identify and track critical
milestones
Participate in project phase
review
Secure needed resources
Manage the change control
process
Report project status
*Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow:
Skills Standards for Information Technology,"Belleview, WA, 1999
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 34
Suggested Skills for Project Managers
• Project managers need a wide variety of skills
• They should be comfortable with change,
understand the organizations they work in and
with, and be able to lead teams to accomplish
project goals
• Project managers need both “hard” and “soft”
skills. Hard skills include product knowledge and
knowing how to use various project management
tools and techniques, and soft skills include being
able to work with various types of people
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 35
Suggested Skills for a Project Manager
• Communication skills: listening, persuading
• Organizational skills: planning, goal-setting,
analyzing
• Team Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de
corps
• Leadership skills: set examples, be energetic, have
vision (big picture), delegate, be positive
• Coping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience,
persistence
• Technological skills: experience, project knowledge
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 36
Question
• What makes a good project manager?
• What makes a good leader?
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 37
Revision – Questions from Topic 1
• Is it enough to be a good project manager or do
you need to understand the area you are
managing?
• For example, could an experience project
manager with no IT background manage an IT
project?
• Or, a documentation project (e.g. putting together
a tender) with no tendering experience?
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 38
Effective vs. Ineffective Project Managers
Effective Project Managers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lead by example
Are visionaries
Are technically competent
Are decisive
Are good communicators
Are good motivators
Stand up to upper
management when necessary
• Support team members
• Encourage new ideas
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Ineffective Project Managers
•
•
•
•
•
Semester 1, 2004
Set bad examples
Are not self-assured
Lack technical expertise
Are poor communicators
Are poor motivators
Slide 39
Summary: PM Context
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 40
Topic 2.2
Project Management Process
Groups
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 41
Topic 2.2 Reading
• Essential
• Schwalbe Chapter 3
• Recommended
• PMBOK Chapter 3
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 42
Learning Objectives
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
• Describe the five project management process
groups, the typical level of activity for each, and the
interactions among them
• Explain how the project management process groups
relate to the project management knowledge areas
• Discuss how organizations develop information
technology project management methodologies to
meet their needs
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 43
Learning Objectives
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
•
•
Review a case study of an organization and
identify the project management process
groups required to manage an information
technology project
Explain the contribution that effective project
initiation, project planning, project execution,
project control, and project closing makes to
project success
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 44
Project Management Process Groups
• Project management can be viewed as a
number of interlinked processes
• The project management process groups
include
•
•
•
•
•
initiating processes
planning processes
executing processes
controlling processes
closing processes
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 45
Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase
(PMBOK® Guide, 2000, p. 31)
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 46
Revision - 9 Knowledge Areas
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 47
Relationships Among Process Groups &
Knowledge Areas
(PMBOK® Guide 2000, p. 38)
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 48
Relationships Among Process Groups & Knowledge Areas
PMBOK® Guide
2000, p. 38
Developing an IT Project Mangt Methodology
• Just as projects are unique, so are
approaches to project management
• Many organizations develop their own
project management methodologies,
especially for IT projects
• Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan used
the PMBOK as a guide in developing their
IT project management methodology
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 50
ITPM Methodology
See figure in text. Note that
many parts of this approach
map to the PMBOK, but
some activities have been
changed to meet the needs
of the organization.
Case Study: JWD Consulting’s Project
Management Intranet Site
• This case study provides an example of what’s
involved in initiating, planning, executing,
controlling, and closing an IT project
• You can download templates for creating your
own project management documents from the
companion Web site for this text
• Note: This case study provides a big picture view
of managing a project. Later chapters provide
detailed information on each knowledge area.
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 52
Project Initiation
• Initiating a project includes recognizing and
starting a new project or project phase
• Some organizations use a pre-initiation phase,
while others include items like developing a
business case as part of initiation
• The main goal is to formally select and start off
projects
• Key outputs include:
•
•
•
•
Assigning the project manager
Identifying key stakeholders
Completing a business case
Completing a project charter & getting signatures on it
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 53
Project Initiation Documents
• Business case: See pages 74-76
• Charter: See pages 77-78, also shown on
next two slides
• Note: Every organization has its own
variations of what documents are required
for project initiation. It’s important to identify
the need for projects, who the stakeholders
are, and what the main goals are for the
project
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 54
JWD’s Project Charter
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 55
JWD’s Project Charter
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 56
Project Planning
• The main purpose of project planning is to guide
execution
• Every knowledge area includes planning
information (see Table 3-5 on pages 79-80)
• Key outputs include:
•
•
•
•
A team contract
A scope statement
A work breakdown structure (WBS)
A project schedule, in the form of a Gantt chart with all
dependencies and resources entered
• A list of prioritized risks
•
See sample documents on pages 83-90, and refer to them later in the course
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 57
JWD’s Project Gantt Chart
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 58
JWD’s List of Prioritized Risks
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 59
Project Executing
• It usually takes the most time and resources
to perform project execution since the
products of the project are produced here
• The most important output of execution is
work results
• Project managers must use their leadership
skills to handle the many challenges that
occur during project execution
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 60
Project Controlling
• Controlling involves measuring progress
toward project objectives, monitoring
deviation from the plan, and taking
corrective actions
• Controlling affects all other process groups
and occurs during all phases of the project
life cycle
• Status and progress reports are important
outputs of controlling
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 61
Project Closing
• The closing process involves gaining
stakeholder and customer acceptance of
the final product and bringing the project, or
project phase, to an orderly end
• Even if projects are not completed, they
should be closed out to learn from the past
• Project archives and lessons learned are
important outputs. Most projects include a
final report and presentations
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 62
Post-Project Follow-up
• Many organizations have realized that it’s
important to review the results of projects a
year or so after they have been completed
• Many projects project potential savings, so
it’s important to review the financial
estimates and help learn from the past in
preparing new estimates
ICT 327 Management of IT Projects
Semester 1, 2004
Slide 63

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