MULTIMODAL LOS IN THE 2010 HCM Paul Ryus Kittelson

Report
Ferry Transit
Capacity
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Presentation Overview
Learning objectives
Ferry facilities and service
Vessels
Ferry terminals
Operations
Capacity considerations
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Learning Objectives
Gain an understanding of the wide variety of vessels, service types, and
conditions which influence ferry service
 Unlike other transit services, ferry services tend to vary widely and have little
in common with each other
Presentation of vessel access considerations and typical terminal
configurations
Become familiar with factors affecting ferry capacity:
 Berth capacity
 Dock capacity
 Vessel passenger capacity
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Changes from the 2nd Edition
Re-organization of chapter for clarity
Updated content
 Removal of material unnecessarily specific to certain systems
 Generalization of other content to increase applicability
 Discussion of maritime security (MARSEC)
Purpose is to promote a framework for understanding ferry operations
and capacity instead of specific approaches for certain system types
New spreadsheet tool for helping evaluate ferry transit capacity
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ferry
Facilities
and Service
Colman Dock, Seattle
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ferry Facilities and Service
Ferries provide a significant transit element in many cities:
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New York
San Francisco
Seattle
Vancouver, BC
Boston
Also in smaller communities:
 Nantucket – Martha’s Vineyard
 Victoria, BC
Boston
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Many Systems Go Unnoticed
Washington has:
 Eight publicly owned ferry operators with 16 routes
 At least three privately operated systems
 Several tourist systems (excursions)
Ferry on Puget Sound, WA
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Distinct Types of Ferry Service
Mixed auto–passenger
Passenger-only
Water taxies
Water taxi, Baltimore
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Route Types
Crossing bodies of water
Island service
Parallel to shoreline
Two-stop routes
Multi-stop routes
Ferry services crossing San Francisco Bay
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Factors Unique to Ferry Service
Tidal influence (ranges from minimal to 40 feet)
Water body and shoreline
Harbor congestion
Weather (fog, wind)
Vessels are usually one or few of a kind
Berthing requirements vary by
vessel class
 Length, width, freeboard,
door locations
Island service requirements
 Emergency, commercial,
reservations, other
Harbor ferries, Copenhagen
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Factors Unique to Ferry Service (cont’d.)
Most trips are multimodal
System lack of spare vessels
Operation by non-traditional transit providers
Regulatory environment (US Coast Guard)
 Certificates of Inspection – Capacity
 Crew size (dispatch problems)
Security requirements
 MARSEC Levels 1, 2, and 3
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ferry
Vessels
Staten Island Ferry, New York
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Factors Determining Vessel Type
Type of service
 Auto–passenger, passenger-only, water taxi
Required speed
 Conventional or high-speed
Environmental factors
 Seas, reliability
Operational costs
 Speed-dependent
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Vessel Types
Monohull
Catamarans
Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH)
Hydrofoils
Surface effect ships
Hovercraft
Catamaran, Sydney, Australia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ferry
Terminals
Ferry Building dock, San Francisco
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Factors Influencing Ferry Terminal Siting
Difficult shoreline issues – residential, downtown, industrial
Public access – views – aesthetics
Shoreline conditions
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Water depth
Currents
Fetch & breakwaters
Marine traffic
Marine life
Ferry terminal, Sidney, British Columbia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Terminal Elements
Street access
Terminal building
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Lobby (open queuing area)
Ticketing (fare sales)
Control (collection, passenger count, security)
Secure holding (security, pre-load)
Boarding control
SeaBus Terminal, North Vancouver, British Columbia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Terminal Elements (cont’d.)
Vessel access
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Pier (deep water)
Berth (mooring)
Ramp (elevation)
Gangway (access)
Circular Quay, Sydney, Australia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Example Terminal Configuration
Boarding Control
Ticket Collection
Security
Passenger Count
Berths
Secure Holding
Gangways
Ticketing
Street Access
Lobby
Terminal Building
Pier
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ramp
Issues with Multiple Routes at a Single Terminal
Passenger control and separation by route
Simultaneous vessel landings can occur
 Embarkation and disembarkation conflicts
Boarding Control
Ticket Collection
Security
Passenger Count
Berths
Secure Holding
Gangways
Ticketing
Street Access
Lobby
Terminal Building
Pier
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ramp
More Common Terminal Arrangement #1
Boarding Control
Ticket Collection
Security
Passenger Count
Berths
Secure Holding
Gangways
Ticketing
Street Access
Lobby
Terminal
Building
Piers
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Ramps
More Common Terminal Arrangement #2
Gangways
Boarding Control
Ticket Collection
Security
Passenger Count
Ticketing
Street Access
Lobby
Terminal
Building
Ramp
Pier
Secure Holding
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Operations
Active Pass, British Columbia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Routes and Crossing Capacity
Multi-stop routes:
 Passengers may or may not disembark at a stop
 Passenger count is difficult to maintain
 First-in first-out pre-staging passengers is difficult
Crossing between two points:
 All passengers disembark at each stop
Multi-stop ferry service, Brisbane, Australia
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Capacity
Island ferry service, Fur, Denmark
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Berth Capacity
Berth capacity: Arrival service time
 Vessel clearance time
 Maneuver
 Tie up
 Gangway placement
 Disembarking time
 Passenger volume – bottleneck location
 Passenger walking times (from vessel to holding area access)
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Berth Capacity (cont’d.)
Berth capacity: Departure service time
 Embarking time
 Passenger volume – bottleneck location
 Passenger walking times (from holding area to vessel)
 Vessel clearance time
 Gangway removal
 Tie up
 Maneuver
Total of departure service time, arrival service time, and an operating
margin to account for delays gives the minimum service time per vessel
 These times will be different for different vessels using a berth, and will vary
by time of day with passenger volumes
These service times determine the maximum number of vessels that can
be scheduled to use a berth during an hour
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Notes on Berth Capacity (cont’d.)
Simultaneous disembarking and embarking
 May not be viable due to security requirements
 Difficult at best—no control in a hazardous area
 Passenger load control is difficult
Automobile embarking and disembarking
 Procedure included in TCQSM
 Not addressed further in this presentation
Schedule float/operating margin
 Additional time for consideration of uncertain or extreme conditions
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Dock and Route Capacity
Dock capacity
 Sum of individual berth capacities
 Number of vessels serving berth in an hour
 Passenger capacity of vessel(s) serving berth (not all vessels using a given berth may
be identical)
 Vessel passenger capacities will vary by amount of crew provided
Route/crossing capacity
 Vessel frequency
 Vessel passenger capacity
 Peak hour factor (PHF)
 Accounts for fluctuations in demand during the analysis hour
 Not all offered capacity will be able to be used, except under a reservation system, if
pass-ups are not to occur
 Capacity = (frequency) ×(weighted average vessel passenger capacity) ×(PHF)
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
More Information
TCRP Report 165: TCQSM—Chapter 9, Ferry Transit Capacity
 Ferry capacity spreadsheet included on the CD-ROM
TCRP Report 152: Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services
TCRP Synthesis 102: Integrating Passenger Ferry Service with Mass Transit
All of these documents are available as:
 Free individual printed copies and PDF downloads through the TCRP
Dissemination Program
http://www.tcrponline.org
 Free PDF downloads directly from TCRP
http://www.trb.org/TCRP/Public/TCRP.aspx (Publications section)
or simply do an Internet search for the report number (e.g., TCRP Report 165)
 Individual or multiple copy purchases from the TRB Bookstore
http://books.trbbookstore.org/
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Acknowledgments and Permissions
Presentation authors
 Bill Carter and Ryan Avery (Parsons Brinkerhoff, Quade & Douglass)
Photo credits
 Colman Dock: Bill Carter
 All others: Paul Ryus
This presentation was developed through TCRP Project A-15C
 Research team: Kittelson & Associates; Parsons Brinkerhoff, Quade &
Douglass; KFH Group; Texas A&M Transportation Institute; and Arup
 This presentation and its contents may be freely distributed and used, with
appropriate credit to the presentation authors and photographers, and the
Transit Cooperative Research Program
Transit Capacity & Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition

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