Urbanization & Immigration

Report
URBANIZATION & IMMIGRATION
“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me:
I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”
-Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” 1883
•
Progress of American civilization  industrial technology, architecture, urban
environments
• World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
• Population growth, steel-framed skyscrapers, department stores, theaters
• Workers’ housing near factories, warehouses
• Suburban “retreats”
• Streetcars, RRs
• Pollution, poverty, crime, vice
• “confusion of tongues worse than the tower of Babel”
A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS
THE IMMIGRANT POPULATION BOOMS
•
1850  pop.x3
•
23.2  76.2 million
• 16.2 million immigrants into US
• 8.8 million in 1 st decade of 20th c.
•
•
PUSH
•
Poverty of farmworkers
•
Political turmoil
•
Mechanization of farm work
•
Overcrowded cities, joblessness (pop. Boom)
•
Religious persecution
PULL
•
Political/religious freedom
•
Economic opportunity (jobs, land)
•
Inexpensive passage
“OLD” VS. “NEW” IMMIGRANTS
•
 1880s = “Old”
• NW Europe
•
1890s  = “New”
• SE Europe
• “birds of passage”
WHAT WAS IMMIGRATION LIKE DURING THE
GILDED AGE?
•
Physical exams at Angel Island. After being assigned a barrack and bunk, new arrivals
underwent a medical examination shortly after reaching the island. Unfamiliar with the
language, customs, and Western medical procedures, the examination was often
characterized by newcomers as humiliating and barbaric. Photo Sources: (left) National
Archives and (right) Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation.
From the colonial era to
1880, most immigrants
came from England,
Ireland, or Germany
in Northern Europe
The “new immigrants”
were typically young,
male, either Catholic
or Jewish, and spoke
little or no English
The majority were
unskilled agricultural
laborers with little
money or education
Between 1880 and 1921,
70% of all immigrants
to the USA came from
southern and eastern
Europe (Italy, Poland,
Austria-Hungary, Russia)
• LIBERTAS= Roman goddess of
freedom
•She is bearing a torch representing
progress and a tablet (inscribed July 4,
1776) that represents the concept of law
•7 points on the crown represent 7 seas,
7 continents, and the sun- another way
of enlightening the world
•A broken chair lies around her feet
IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION
•
1882 Restrictions
• Chinese Exclusion Act
• Restrictions on “undesirables”
• Paupers, criminals, convicts,
mentally incompetent
•
1885- Contract Labor Law
• Restrictions on temporary workers
• Veto of Literacy Test (later passed- 1917)
•
1892- Ellis Island opens
• Medical examinations, tax to enter US
SUPPORT FOR IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION
•
Labor unions
• Competition, scabs
•
Nativists
• American Protective Association
•
Social Darwinists
• Biologically inferior
•
1890s depression  immigrants as scapegoats for jobless, strikes (foreign agitation)
•
1920s brings Quota Acts
•
HOWEVER…
• By 1901- 15% of US = immigrants
• Statue of Liberty = beacon of hope for poor, oppressed
SURVIVAL
• Seek out others from their culture
• Often greeted by family, immigrant aid societies, agents offering jobs (mines, mills,
sweatshops), representatives of machines
• Work
• Recruiters claim % of wage once set a person up w/ a job (padrones), contractors would
purchase tickets to other cities for immigrants
• Spread throughout the US according to vocation
• Those familiar w/ pick/shovel work (Poles, Hungarians, Slovaks, Italians) coal mines
(previously, Irish, Welsh)
• Muscle work (slavs, Poles)  steel mills
• Textile mills  Greeks
• Sewing trades/pushcart markets  Russians, Jews
NATIVISM
Response? New immigrants a threat
•
•
Anti-Catholicism
•
Anti-Semitism
•
Cultural differences enforce ideas of WASP superiority
•
Some truth: many illiterate, didn’t speak English, resorted to crime, were political/social radicals
•
Movement to restrict immigration w/in gov. and through law
H. C. Lodge- 1891: want to restrict illiterate immigrants, propose literacy test
•
•
VETOED by Cleveland
1882 (Arthur)- Chinese 1/9 of CA population
•
•
RR see as hardworking, whites resent b/c of lower wages and “disgusting habits of thrift,
industry, and self-denial.”
•
Restrictions until 1943
Many Americans expressed nativism and viewed
immigrants with a sense of fear, suspicion, and hostility
Nativists had deepseated prejudices
about immigrants
based on ethnicity,
religion, political
and social beliefs
Many Americans
accused immigrants
of taking jobs away
from “real” Americans
and called for quotas
that would limit the
number of immigrants

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