Key Tenets of Jacksonian Democracy Belief in the common man 0 Jacksonians - great respect for the sense and abilities of common man 0 Andrew Jackson - seen as common man who represented the interests of people. Expanded suffrage 0 The Jacksonians expanded White male suffrage. 0 During the Federalist Era, caucuses of party leaders maintained discipline and selected candidates. During the Jackson administration, nominating conventions replaced legislative caucuses. Patronage 0 The Jacksonians supported patronage- the policy of placing political supporters in office. 0 Many Jacksonians believed that victorious candidates had a duty to reward their supporters and punish their opponents. Opposition to privileged elites 0 As champions of the common man, the Jacksonians despised the special privileges of the Eastern elite. 0 Special privileges were anathemas to a government dedicated to promoting and protecting the common man. Key terms: • Suffrage • Common man • Caucuses • Patronage The Tariff of Abominations and the Nullification Crisis The Tariff of Abominations, 1828 0 The tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828 were the first tariffs in American history whose primary purpose was protection. 0 The Tariff of 1828 caused John C. Calhoun to write the doctrine of nullification. The Doctrine of Nullification 0 In the doctrine of nullification John C. Calhoun supported the states rights and compared the tariff to the Kentucky and Virginia Acts. 0 Penning the name South Carolina Exposition and Protest, Calhoun said that a state can deny a federal law if they consider it unconstitutional. Opposition to Nullification 0 In the Webster- Hayne Debate, Daniel Webster presented his case with extreme dislike towards nullification. Webster ended the powerful speech by supporting a unified country 0 Jackson’s disapproval of nullification helped his image for a common man with interests in the nation as a whole. Key terms: • Tariff • Doctrine of nullification o T f a r 1 i 8 f 3 f 2 This document shows Congress’s decision to pass the Tariff of 1832 The Bank War Photo: Jackson fighting the “bank” head on. Biddle is represented by the primary head with the top hat Key Terms: Hard money: Gold and silver Soft money: Credit Jackson’s Veto 0 Jackson was against the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) 0 Jackson believed that the bank was an upholder of special privileges. He argues that the BUS was beneficial to advocates of “hard money” and thus inimical to the interests of the common people who elected him. Consequences 0 Poor economy for future presidents 0 Unrepaid loans, leads to thousands of citizens losing their savings. 0 The lack of a central banking authority contributed to wild expansion of money, risky land speculation, and inflation. 0 Jackson’s war on the BUS initiated and would lead to the two-party system Jackson and the Forced Removal of Native Americans Jackson and the Cherokees 0 Andrew Jackson was extremely against Indians. 0 John Marshall ruled in favor of the Indians, but Jackson refused to reinforce the verdict, famously saying, “John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it.” The Trail of Tears 0 Jackson’s Native American policy resulted in the removal of over 20,000 Cherokees from their homeland to settlements across the Mississippi River. 0 The trail of Tears refers to the route taken by Native Americans as they were relocated to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma. 0 Approximately one-quarter of the Cherokee people died on the Trail of Tears. Worcester vs. Georgia, 1831 http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=xd5qVE9LRFc Planters in the Antebellum South, 1816-1860 King Cotton 0 How the cash crop of cotton was developed: 0 Eli Whitney’s creation of the cotton gin (engine). 0 Purchasing of slaves and expansion of land of the few wealthy owners. 0 England’s participation in importing cotton. Southern Society 0 A majority of the people living in the south are not wealthy land owners. This was designated to a few. 0 Few slaves are owned by white families 0 The south was controlled mostly by the few wealthy land owners who had slaves, money, and land. Slaves in the Antebellum South, 1816-1860 Slave Society 0 Slaves were reduced to property, and given no civil nor political rights. 0 They were still able to keep bonds. However if there were to be an auction, families rarely would be sold together and would be separated. 0 The large increase in the South’s slave labor force because of the increasing amount of American-born slaves. 0 During the antebellum period, free African Americans were able to accumulate some property in spite of discrimination. 0 An argument for the slaves that the owners gave was that their slaves still had more rights than those of slaves elsewhere. Given the opportunity to marry and procreate. 0 Few times did they revolt. They “damaged” the owners in a separate way by pretending to be sick or injured or just by working slower. 0 The majority of slaves modified their way of life because of their condition and created a mix of the two cultures. $50 Reward for [illegible] “[illegible]e runaway! where is he? Daniel Lane after Henry Bibb in Louisville, Kentucky June 1838 The object was to sell Bibb in the Slave market but Bibb turned the corner too quick for him & escaped. “ The Transportation Revolution New Developments 0 The Erie Canal was one of the most famous canals and helped produce higher trade activity in the North. 0 Rivers were the most efficient way to transport goods and they were used more efficiently when the invention of steamboats came about. They were used regularly around the 1830’s. 0 Railroads were used to transport goods but there were no locomotives. The first was built in 1825. Consequences 0 Ability to exchange goods at one-tenth the old price and only half the time. 0 The Southern farmers moved to the fresh soil in the west from the depleted soil on the east coast. 0 Less impact on the south who were in more desolate areas already, then the trade routes came through. 0 Circulation on the canals increased making it difficult to transport goods. WOMEN IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA THE CULT OF DOMESTICITY/REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD 0 American women had limited education, were not able to vote, sue, or many other things that men were given the right to do. 0 The concept of “republican motherhood” was that women are not to have roles of authority and that they should educate their children and perform the household duties. 0 The mother of families should be focused on religion and the up keeping of the children. FACTORY WORKERS IN LOWELL 0 During the first half of the nineteenth century, farm girls and young women from throughout New England were recruited to work in the textile factories in Lowell, Massachusetts. 0 Many were able to join organized demonstrations against their working conditions. 0 Protested women’s rights. ALTERING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOMENS’S MOVEMENT 0 0 Closely associated with the temperance and anti-slavery movements. The South was not as involved. THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION, 1848 0 Abolitionist activists and Quakers Elizabeth Cady Stanton (top) and Lucretia Mott convene the Seneca Falls Convention on women's rights in a Wesleyan chapel at Seneca, New York. 0 They all came to protest the mistreatment of women in social, economic, political, and religious life. Its attendees adopted a statement known as the Declaration of Sentiments (or the Seneca Falls Declaration). 0 This meeting gathered activists from a wide range of political and reform concerns: antislavery, Free-Soil party supporters, temperance advocates SUSAN B. ANTHONY 0 Susan B. Anthony (bottom) was an advocator for women’s rights. She and Santon became a driving force for the rights movement. The duo assisted each other to create this dynamo. DOROTHEA DIX 0 Dorothea Dix was an activist that helped people with mental and emotional disabilities. 0 Dix was NOT involved in the women’s rights movement. The Seneca Falls Convention ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING 0 0 0 The Second Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm, led by travelling preachers such as Charles Finney and Lyman Beecher. Stressed the philosophy of salvation through good deeds. The Second Great Awakening played an important role in making Americans aware of the moral issues posed by slavery. AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY 0 0 The American Colonization Society worked to return freed slaves to the west coast of Africa. It was primarily led by middle class men and women. Established by Robert Finley in 1816. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON 0 0 0 0 Garrison was the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper the Liberator and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. Garrison’s support of women’s rights caused the American Anti-Slavery Society to split into rival factions. Stressed nonviolent and passive resistance. Garrison started off as Frederick Douglass’ mentor, but eventually their separate views led to a bitter dispute. FREDERICK DOUGLASS 0 0 Frederick Douglass was the most prominent Black abolitionist during the antebellum period. Although best known as an abolitionist, Douglass championed equal rights for women and Native Americans. SARAH MOORE GRIMKE 0 0 Grimke was one of the first women to publically support both abolition and women’s rights. She teamed with her sister Angelina to defy standards held for women at the time, fully expressing their feminist and abolitionist views. (Top to bottom: Garrison, Douglass, Grimke) TRANSECENDENTALISM AND UTOPIAN COMMUNITIES TRANSCENDENTALISM 0 Transcendentalism is a simple idea that both men and women have equal knowledge about themselves and the world around them that "transcends" or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel. 0 Ralph Waldo Emerson, the leading light of the group, believed that people were naturally good and that everyone's potential was limitless. Basic visual representation of transcendentalism UTOPIAN COMMUNITIES 100,000 individuals formed utopian communities in an effort to create perfect societies in widespread happiness. The best known utopian communities included the Mormons, Brook Farm, New Harmony, the Shakers and the Oneida Community. CULTRUAL ADVANCES EDUCATION 0 McGuffey Readers were the best known and most widely used school books in the nineteenth century, rivaling the Bible in sales 0 Newspapers and mass spectator sports thrived during the first half of the nineteenth century. 0 Horace Mann worked to improve the educational system in all aspects 0 American literature emerged. Used recent history of the Revolutionary War and other sources for books. THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL A school of painting was founded by Thomas Cole, called the Hudson River School. This school produced works of art that depicted American landscapes and the coexistence of humans and nature. The Hudson River School was America’s fist coherent school of art. Painting by Thomas Cole Questions?