Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar

Report
Spelling, Punctuation
and Grammar
Workshop – Brentwood
Schools February 2013
A starting question
The semicolon
How often do you actually use it?
What are the alternatives?
Does it matter if you do not use it often?
Can you give me a good example of the use of
semicolon where it is absolutely the best
option to provide meaning in a sentence?
Spelling, Punctuation and
Grammar (and vocabulary)
AIMS
•Present an overview of the new test
requirements for the end of key stage 2
•To make you realise that the SPAG
requirements are not at all scary, except
for one of the level 6 papers.
What Changes Are There To English Tests For KS2 In 2013?
What Changes?
• Writing will be assessed by teacher assessment.
• Assessment will be of a range of Year 6 writing done as part of the normal
sequence of lessons.
• Writing will be internally moderated. LA moderators will sample 15-25% of
schools.
• There will no longer be a writing test or writing sample. This is replaced by a
test of English spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and grammar.
• The SPAG test will take place on Tuesday 14th May a.m.
• A level 6 SPAG test is available and will also take place on 14th May p.m.
What Stays the Same?
• Maths and Reading tests
• Schools will submit teacher assessments by 28th June, i.e. before test papers
are returned.
Other SPAG impact......
• The spelling, punctuation and grammar test will be
administered, externally marked and published (including in
RaiseOnline),
• SPAG will not impact on the writing mark or the floor
standard.
• There will be no overall English score, but a separate
reading and writing score.
• The primary attainment floor standard will remain at 60%
this year and not be increased to 65% as was originally
planned.
• You will be above the floor if you achieve above 60% on
Reading AND Writing AND Maths, OR above median for
progress on Reading, OR above median for progress
on Writing, OR above median for progress on Maths.
• It is not known if the floor target will increase in 2014
Why Test SPAG?
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Because the DFE says so!
To close the gap between pupils from different backgrounds
To give all pupils greater access to “Standard English”
It fits nicely with the draft national curriculum
The SPaG test will assess level 3-5 of the current English
curriculum.
• A separate level 6 test will be available for schools that wish to
enter children who are expected to be working above level 5 at
the time of the test.
Contexts
Ofsted:
• Standards in English are not high enough and, since 2008,
there has been no overall improvement in primary pupil’s
learning….Above all this means being passionate about
high standards of literacy for every single pupil, and
creating a no-excuses culture both for pupils and staff.
• Among the ten steps to raise literacy is the
recommendation that government consider whether the
target of level 4 is sufficiently high to provide an adequate
foundation for success.
Michael Wilshaw March 2012
“Moving English Forward” Recommendations:
The Department for Education should:
• provide support in order to increase the number of specialist English teachers in primary
schools and to improve the subject knowledge of existing English coordinators in primary
schools.
All schools should:
• develop policies to promote reading for enjoyment throughout the school
• simplify lesson plans in English to concentrate on the key learning objectives and
encourage teachers to be more flexible in responding to pupils’ progress as lessons
develop.
Nursery and primary schools should also:
• develop a structured programme for improving children’s communication skills in the
Early Years Foundation Stage
• secure pupils’ early reading skills by the end of Key Stage 1.
Spelling
• There are clear guidelines in the draft
English curriculum about the
development of spelling including lists of
key words.
A question:
• What has been the impact of phonics in
your school?
Spelling in Draft NC English Document
Year 2 Pupils should be taught to:
* spell by: a. segmenting words into phonemes and representing these by
graphemes, spelling many correctly
b. learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or
more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each
spelling, including a few common homophones (e.g. two, to, too)
c. learning to spell common exception words
d. learning to spell more words with contracted forms, e.g. can’t,
don’t e. distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones
* add suffixes to spell longer words, e.g. –ment, –ness, –ful and –less
* apply spelling rules and guidelines, as listed in Appendix 1
* write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that contain
words and punctuation taught so far
Spelling in Draft NC English Document
• Year 5 / 6 Pupils should be taught to:
•
a. use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidelines
for adding them
•
b. spell some words with ‘silent’ letters, e.g. knight, psalm, solemn
•
c. continue to distinguish between homophones and other words
which are often confused
•
d. use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and
understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt
specifically, as listed in Appendix 1
•
e. use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words
•
f. use the first three or four letters of a word to look up words in a
dictionary to check spelling, meaning or both of these.
•
g. use a thesaurus
Definitions
Morphology:
• The branch of biology that deals with the form and structure of organisms without
consideration of function
Or in Linquistics, morphology is:
• the study of the forms of words
• the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's
morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech,
intonation/stress, or implied context
A morpheme is:
• is the smallest semantic unit in a language
• "Unbreakable" comprises three morphemes: un- (a bound morpheme signifying
"not"), -break- (the root, a free morpheme), and -able (a morpheme signifying
"can be done").
Semantics:
• is the study of meaning
Etymology is:
• the study of the history of words and come from the Greek word etymon which
mean “true sense” and if you add that to “ology” you get the study of true sense.
Spelling – A quick test
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
knowledge
accident..
beginning.
permanent.
unnecessary
catalogue
biscuits
leisure
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
preferred
subtle
jewellery
foreign.
synchronised
desperately
vicious
“Moving English Forward” and Spelling
• Pupils with a fluent cursive script are more likely to
become good spellers.
• Inspectors observed spelling was rarely taught explicitly.
• there is little consistency within schools about which
spelling mistakes to correct and how.
• Pupils with particular special needs related to spelling,
and less regularly handwriting, often received good,
targeted support.
• Teachers often felt that spelling and handwriting were
important but most felt that they could not afford to spend
much time teaching spelling and handwriting since they were
allocated relatively few marks in national tests.
Good practice in improving
handwriting and spelling
• There is a consistently applied policy for handwriting (when,
how, frequency)
• There is a detailed progression chart for teachers giving
examples of handwriting patterns, families of letters and so
on.
• Guidance is also provided on how pupils should develop
pencil grips, and how to teach single letters and joins.
• Sessions are to be linked to the spellings taught that week.
Handwriting In DRAFT NC English Document
Year 1
Pupils should be taught to:
• sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly
• begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right
place
• form capital letters
• form digits 0–9
• understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (i.e. letters that are
formed in similar ways) and to practise these
Years 5 / 6
Pupils should be taught to:
• write legibly, fluently, with increasing speed and personal style by:
• a. choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding, as part of
their personal style, whether or not to join specific letters
• b. choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task (e.g. quick notes, letters).
Marking Literacy Across The Curriculum
The most effective schools often have a whole-school marking policy
which emphasises the importance of literacy and is applied consistently.
However, in many primary schools, teachers’ marking in other subjects is
less detailed than in English and rarely focuses on key basic errors.
This can be most obvious in subjects like science where pupils often
write one-sentence answers to questions or short paragraphs evaluating
experiments.
In humanities, pupils often write extended pieces in diary, news report
or letter forms. All of these lend themselves well to marking for literacy
but often this is not the case.
Ofsted Distance Learning for
Inspectors
Spelling, do you agree with these
statements?
It’s important
It’s not the most important aspect of writing
It needs to be taught explicitly
It is an active developmental process
Teach cursive handwriting to help with spelling
Be positive about spelling and about children
Teach strategies not spellings
Don’t avoid a word because it’s hard to spell
How words look is as important as how they sound
Words are often built up of units e.g. prefixes, suffixes, roots and
they have a history
• Words are fun
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• A key text is Support for Spelling.
What Good Spellers Need 1.
• Knowledge of word structures and meanings. An increasing linguistic knowledge of
word structures and meanings is essential and is evident in attention to:
o Prefixes
o Tenses
o Words made up of smaller words (e.g football, birthday)
o Word roots
o Word origins ( e.g. photograph, photosynthesis)
• Growing independence. Knowing how and where to get help, how to proof read and
check their own and others work is essential. In addition to self-monitoring children
need to have effective ways of consciously learning new spellings
• To make analogies and deduce rules. These are fundamental processes that help
children make use of the spelling system. Much learning is implicit initially but as
knowledge grows children need to become more reflective and able to make more
explicit generalisations and deduce rules.
From: “Understanding Spelling” by Olivia O’Sullivan and Anne Thomas
What Good Spellers Need 2.
• Extensive experience of written language
• Phonological awareness. (syllabification, onset, rime, phonemic awareness) children
learn to attend more closely to increasingly detailed aspects of sound-letter
relationships and to detect patterns of sound associated with patterns of letter.
·
• Letter names and alphabetical knowledge –
·
• Known words. Children need to develop a lexicon of familiar words which are spelled
correctly and are a basis for analogy making
·
• Visual awareness, spellers need to know that spelling is as much to do with how
words look as with how they sound. Visual awareness includes a growing sense of the
likely patterns of letters that occur in English and the habit of looking at words within
words and noting how words are made up
·
• Awareness of common letter strings and word patterns. Children need to become
familiar with common letter patterns ( e.g. –at, -ad, -ee, -ing, -one, -ough) including
patterns in words which look alike but don’t sound alike.
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How To Spell: Strategies
Break it into sounds (
d-i-a-r-y)
• Refer to etymology
Break it into
(bi+cycle = two +
syllables (re-memwheels)
ber)
• Use analogy (bright,
Break it into affixes
light, night…)
(dis + satisfy)
• Use a key word
Use a mnemonic
(horrible/drinkable
(necessary has one
for able and ible)
collar and two
sleeves)
• Apply spelling rules
Refer to a word in the (writing, written)
same family (muscle • Learn by sight (look– muscular)
cover-say-writeSay it as it sounds
check)
Spelling in Draft NC English Document
o Word List for Years 5 and 6
Accommodate, debate, favour, identify lawyer narrate qualify similar umpire affection deceive familiar
illustrate lecture nation quench sincere unite analyse decimal festival investigate jealous juice
junction jury knead knuckle magazine majesty majority manage manufacture marvellous medium
military mineral minor miracle mischief mischievous modern modest moisture mosquito natural ninth
nuisance persevere object reason observe occupy receive omit operate opinion organise origin
parallel parliament permanent phrase popular prefer privilege pronunciation protect punctual query
rapid realise receipt recent recommend refuse regret relevant imagine legend society utter ancient
definite flavour imitate leisure solemn apparent demonstrate forbid immense length sphere vacant
appreciate deprive foreign impress lenient statue variety atmosphere destroy forty imprison lightning
stubborn attitude develop fruit include liquid style ventilate average index succeed villain awkward
garage industry success virtue electric genuine inferior suggest vocabulary bargain embarrass germ
influence suit volcano believe emigrate govern(ment) inhabitant superior volume blemish encounter
gradual instrument surprise boundary encourage granite interfere remove syllable wardrobe bruise
endure guarantee interrupt request sympathy whether engineer interview resemble syrup wisdom
career enrol harass introduce resign wizard celebrate envelope haughty restore talent woollen
century equator haunt revise telescope wrench challenge equip hearty rhyme tempt committee
especially height rhythm terminate yacht convince estimate hinder ridiculous theatre yeast
correspond Europe hindrance thorough coward European hoax sandwich tomorrow zero create
evidence honour satisfy tremendous zone curious exaggerate horizon purpose saucepan triumph
zoology excavate humility scheme twelfth exceed hurricane seize tyrant explanation severe sign
Think up unusual definitions for familiar
words, e.g.
bunny – a bit like a bun
piecrust – what happens if you don’t polish your
pike
Now you try......
buffalo –
malady –
lightning -
Punctuation
.
.?
.?,!
. ? , … ! “”
- ? , … ! ‘ “” : ; ()
How would you punctuate this
sentence?
a woman without her man is
nothing
Two possible ways to punctuate the
sentence giving two different
meanings:
A woman, without her man, is nothing.
A woman: without her, man is nothing.
Punctuation, has anything changed?
Present expectations:
National Curriculum Programmes of Study KS1
Pupils should be taught:
a. how punctuation helps a reader understand what is written
b. the connections between punctuation and sentence structure, intonation
and emphasis
c. to use capital letters, full stops, question marks and to begin to use
commas.
National Curriculum Programmes of Study KS2
Pupils should be taught to use punctuation marks correctly in their writing,
including full stops, question and exclamation marks, commas, inverted
commas, and apostrophes to mark possession and omission.
Draft NC for English – Punctuation …Q15
Year 2
Pupils should be taught to:
understand how spoken language can be represented in writing by:
•
a. learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full
stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and
apostrophes for contracted forms
Years 5 / 6
Pupils should be taught to:
indicate grammatical and other features by:
•
a. using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing
•
b. using hyphens to avoid ambiguity
•
c. using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis
•
d. using semi-colons, colons or dashes to indicate a stronger sub-division of a
sentence than a comma
•
e. punctuating bullet points consistently
Give children the chance to punctuate
silly sentences:
the pirate had a wooden leg on his
head he wore a pirate hat over his
left eye there was a black patch on
his shoulder he had a bright green
parrot instead of a hand he had a
painted brass hook which glittered in
his cruelly-shaped mouth he was
smoking a pipe
Draft NC Framework for English: Grammar and Vocabulary
Year 1
In writing, pupils should be taught to:
understand how spoken language can be represented in writing
by:
• leaving spaces between words
• using the word ‘and’ to join words and join sentences
In reading pupils should be taught to:
• recognise and join in with predictable phrases when listening to
stories and poems
• learn by heart and recite rhymes and poems
Years 5 / 6
In writing pupils should be taught to::
•
understand how spoken language can be represented in writing
Composition
• Pupils should be taught to draft and write by selecting appropriate
grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change
and enhance meaning Pupils should be taught to evaluate and edit by:
In reading pupils should be taught to:
• Learn a wider range of poetry by heart
• Prepare poems and play scripts to be read aloud and performed, using
appropriate intonation and volume so that the meaning is clear
• Discuss how authors use language, including figurative language, in the
books they read, and considering the impact on the reader
Using Connectives
How many different ways can you
find to connect these
sentences?
Mum was happy.
Dad did the washing-up.
Mum was happy because Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy although Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy whenever Dad did the washing up!
Mum was happy so Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy but Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy and Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy then Dad did the washing up…
Mum was happy until Dad did the washing up.
Mum was happy after Dad did the washing up?
Mum was happy if Dad did the washing up.
…and many more.........
How should we teach grammar?
•Embed it in lessons on writing or reading
so that it is meaningful
•Encourage discussion, experimentation,
choice and decision making rather than
correctness
•Be explicit about it
•See grammar as a creative tool
•Enjoy difference and divergence
Does SPAG matter?
If the baby does not thrive on fresh milk
it should be boiled.
We is going down town.

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