Jeffersonian Era: Chapter 8

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Terms
 John Marshall
 Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. His court established Judicial
Review. He was a federalist and served for 34 yrs.
 Judicial Review
 The Supreme Court’s power to declare acts of Congress
unconstitutional…originated in Marbury v. Madison
 Louisiana Purchase
 1803 the purchase of French land between the Mississippi R. and the
Rocky Mts that doubled the size of the U.S.
 Meriwether Lewis
 Former army captain selected by President Jefferson to explore the
Louisiana Purchase, he led the expedition known as the Lewis and
Clark expedition.
 William Clark
 Lewis & Clark Expedition
 American soldier, invited to be co-captain to explore the Louisiana
Purchase
 An expedition that began in1804 to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
 Sacagawea
 Shoshone woman who, along with her French husband, accompanied
and aided Lewis and Clark.
 Impressment
 The practice of forcing people[le to serve in the army or navy: led to
increased tensions between Great Britain and the U.S. in the early
1800’s.
 Embargo
 The banning of trade with a country.
 Embargo Act of 1807
 A law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other
countries.
Terms
 Non-intercourse
 Act of 1809 that replaced the Embargo Act and restored trade
with all nations except Britain, France, and their colonies.
 Tecumseh
 Shawnee Chief who attempted to form an Indian confederation to
resist white settlement in the Northwest Territory.
 Battle of Tippecanoe
 1811 U.S. victory over an Indian confederation that wanted to
stop white settlement in the NW Territory; increased tensions
between Great Britain and U.S.
 War Hawks
 Members of Congress who wanted to declare war against Britain
after the Battle of Tippecanoe
 Andrew Jackson
 Nicknamed Old Hickory, he led the Tennessee militia to victory
over Creek Indians (Horseshoe Bend). He is also the hero of the
Battle of New Orleans.
 Treaty of Fort Jackson
 Battle of New Orleans
 Hartford Convention
 Treaty of Ghent
 Treaty signed after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; The Creek
nation were forced to give up 23 million acres of land to the U.S.
 The greatest U.S. victory in the War of 1812; actually took place 2
weeks after a peace treaty had been signed ending the war.
 A meeting of Federalists in Connecticut, to protest the War of
1812.
 A treaty signed by the U.S. and Britain ending the War of 1812.
Thomas Jefferson
Jeffersonian Era: Chapter 8
 Election of 1800 – “Revolution of 1800”
 Feds to Dem-Reps
 http://www.270towin.com/1800_El
ection/
 Federalists – Adams & Pinckney Aaron Burr
 Dem-Reps – Jefferson & Burr
 Revolution because 1st time U.S. has a
transfer of power in gov’t
 Electoral vote went to Dem-Reps… but
was a tie b/w Jefferson and Burr
OH NO!
(Dem-Reps Messed it up)
 House of Reps decide the president in
cases of an Electoral Vote tie
 And the sitting (Federalist) Congress
decides the presidency!
Significance of the Election
 Electors – cast two ballots
 Most votes = President
 2nd most votes = Vice-President
 Dem-Reps didn’t throw one away,
instead split the ticket in half 73/73
 It will take the Congress 36 votes
before a tie is broken.
 Jefferson declared winner because
of Hamilton’s help.
 The political takeover will be peaceful
with only egos taking a hit.
 The election will cement political
division in America b/w North and
South.
 North – pro-business &
manufacturing as well as centralized
gov’t beliefs
 South – pro-agriculture & states’
rights and decentralized power
beliefs.
 12th Amendment – corrects the
electoral mistake by having electors
vote for one ticket (each ticket has
a candidate for Pres & VP).
 It goes into effect for the 1804
election.
Hamilton’s role in Decision
 He is against Adams although he is
President and party leader
 Supports Pinckney, thus creating
turmoil within the Fed Party
 During tie-breaker vote – support
Jefferson and convinced other Feds
to vote for TJ
 thought Burr lacked character and
was untrustworthy.
 This comes back to bite Hamilton
 Burr vs. Hamilton Duel of 1804
 Hamilton is not winning
rd President)
Jefferson’s
Policies
(3
He believed in and wanted to:
 Limit gov’t powers
 Supported the will of the majority
 Lowered military spending and size of
armed forces
 Cut unpopular taxes like the Whiskey
tax
 Agreed to keep the Bank of U.S.
 Jefferson had an ally in Congress –
Exec and Leg Branches were DemReps
 Only opposition was the Judiciary –
Federalists appointed before he was
President.
Marbury vs. Madison
 Case is about a late appointment by
Adams (Marbury) that was blocked
by Sec. of State Madison.
 Supreme Court decided against
Marbury claiming the law he cited
was unconstitutional.
 ESTABLISHED JUDICIAL REVIEW
 No power written in the Constitution
for the Supreme court to rule on
federal laws.
 They give themselves the power to
do this.
 Judicial Review will then be used
in every court case after this first
one and is now considered part of
the unwritten Constitution.
Louisiana
 Controlled by the Spanish but given
back to France in 1802.
 Napoleon (emperor) looking to use
the land to restore France’s power
in the world.
 Americans lost access to New
Orleans, upsetting agricultural trade
in the frontier.
 Jefferson sends Livingston and
Madison to buy New Orleans only.
Louisiana Purchase
 Napoleon wanted to use Haiti to
launch military attacks into
Louisiana.
 Lost Haiti in a slave revolt and
decided to give up on Louisiana.
 Focused on Europe and offers
Louisiana for $15 million
 That is less than.03₵ an acre
 Automatically doubles the size of
the U.S. extending our land from
the Miss R. to Rocky Mts.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
 The expedition (Corps of Discovery) was
responsible for claiming and discovering
the land the U.S. had bought.
 They were to map the area, trade w/ and
learn about Native groups, describe
landforms, plants, and animals.
 The kept journals of everything they saw and
reported back to Jefferson.
 The sailed rivers, carried boats around
waterfalls, and climbed mt. ranges.
 They used Charbonneau and his wife
Sacagawea (had a baby) as interpreters
and guides along their journey.
 The Corps left St. Louis, MO in May 1804
– Reached Rockies in Fall ‘05 – Reached
Pacific in Winter ‘05.
 Returned to St. Louis in Sept of ‘06
Zebulon Pike
 Tasked with discovering the start of
the Red River. (TX & OK)
 Discovered Pikes Peak in Colorado
never reached the summit!
The Coming of War
 World trade is a hostile environment
 Barbary Pirates (N. Africa) needed
to be put down by U.S. Navy
between 1801-1805
 France and England go to war
again, neither want U.S. to help.
 England begins Impressment
methods to gain more soldiers.
 Customary in colonial times, now it
outrages the young country.
Embargo Act & Non-Intercourse (1807 -1809)
 To punish Europe but only hurts the
U.S. economy.
 Lost a lot of money w/o international
trade.
 Jefferson’s popularity took a big hit
 Non-Inter law didn’t work either and
only conflict would settle the
disagreement.
Tecumseh
 Americans want land in Great
Lakes area.
 Natives want to keep their land.
 G. B. sees opportunity knocking –
stop American advance.
 With G.B. aid, Tecumseh united
other tribes to fight back vs.
Americans.
 Wm. H. Harrison then defeat’s
Natives (Tecumseh absent) at
Tippecanoe (1811).
War? (1807 – 1811)
 War Hawks want war with G.B.
believing they mastermind conflict w/
Natives.
 They wanted land in Canada and
outright independence from Britain.
 Federalists opposed war and wanted
better trade options with G.B.
 Also worried about our ability to win.
 For the first time, Congress Declared
war on another nation (Madison).
War of 1812 & Creek War
 Battle of Lake Erie helped secure
Great Lakes area for U.S.
 Tecumseh’s death also hurt British
alliance with natives.
 Our Capital invaded and buildings
burnt (White House)
 Next attack stopped in Baltimore at
Ft. McHenry (Star-Spangled Banner)
 Jackson defeat against the Creek
Nation in Alabama gave America
more native land.
 Jackson then destroys British at
New Orleans…2 weeks after the
Peace Treaty was signed!

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