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Movement
Terminology
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What are movement
types, what do we call
the motions at joints?
Activity 1
For the following joints write down the
movement that can happen at that joint
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wrist
Radio-Ulna
Elbow
Shoulder
Vertebrae
Hip
Knee
Ankle
•
•
•
•
Wrist
Radio-Ulna
Elbow
Shoulder
• Vertebrae
• Hip
• Knee
• Ankle
EXTENSION,PALMAR FLEXION
PRONATION & SUPINATION .
FLEXION & EXTENSION.
ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION, FLEXION,
EXTENSION, ROTATION,
CIRCUMDUCTION
FLEXION,EXTENSION,LATERAL FLEXION
ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION, FLEXION,
EXTENSION, ROTATION.
FLEXION & EXTENSION
DORSI FLEXION &
PLANTAR FELXION
COMPLETE WS 1
Activity 2
What are the muscular contraction types?
Isotonic (Concentric/Eccentric), Isometric and
Isokinetic
Using a Bicep curl explain the 3 main contraction
types ?
•During the upward phase bicep brachii contracts and
shortens and flexes elbow performing concentric
contraction
•During downward phase bicep brachii under tension
lengthens and extends elbow performing eccentric
contraction
•If elbow held at 90* bicep under tension but no
movement therefore isometric contraction
Complete WS 2/3, WS 12, WS 13
MOVEMENT ANALYSIS of a
SPORTING ACTION
Physical
activity
joint
used
movement
pattern
agonist
muscle
LEG ACTION
IN SPRINTING
ankle
plantarflexion
gastrocnemius,
soleus
knee
flexion
followed by
extension
hip
flexion
(KNEE LIFT)
(REAR LEG
DRIVE)
hip
extension
type of
muscular
contraction
(isotonic)
eccentric,
followed by
concentric
exercise
to improve
strength
quadriceps
group
eccentric
followed by
concentric
squats, jumping
upwards onto boxes
rectus
abdominus,
concentric
pike sit-ups, V-sits
concentric
back hyperextension
iliopsoas
gluteus
maximus
calf raise,
plyometric
jumping exercises,
hopping
THIS SEQUENCE COVERS ONE FULL STRIDE FOR ONE LEG
Module 2562 A.1.7
Skeletal Muscle
• Using IS 1 highlight the key words and add to
you key words glossary
Muscle fibre types
Can you recall the types of muscles fibres?
•TYPE 1 – SLOW OXIADATIVE
•TYPE IIA – FAST OXIADATIVE
•TYPE IIB – FAST GLYCOLYTIC
What is the factor that causes us to have a
mixture of muscle fibre types?
•GENETICS
Muscle fibre types
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE:
CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 1
Contraction speed
slow
Motor neurone size small
Force production
low
Fatigability
Mitochondria
high
Myoglobin
Glycogen store
low
Aerobic capacity
Anaerobic capacity
TYPE IIA
fast
large
lower duration
lower
lower
medium
medium
TYPE IIB
fast
high
very high
low
high
low
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE:
CHARACTERISTIC
TYPE 1
Contraction speed
slow
Motor neurone size small
Force production
low
Fatigability
long duration
Mitochondria
high
Myoglobin
high
Glycogen store
low
Aerobic capacity
high
Anaerobic capacity low
TYPE IIA
fast
large
high
lower duration
lower
lower
medium
medium
medium
TYPE IIB
fast
large
high
very high
low
low
high
low
high
Effects of training on muscle fibres
• You can increase the size of muscle fibres
• Increase in size is ‘HYPERTROPHY’
• In Hypertrophy increased quantity and size of
myofibrils per fibre
STRUCTURE of a SARCOMERE
• the Z lines are the ends of the sarcomere
• which are attached to actin filaments which
comprise the I zone of the relaxed unit
• the myosin filaments lie in between actin
filaments which they just overlap (relaxed)
• the H zone is the space between the ends of
the actin filaments
CONTRACTION
• during contraction the cross-bridges between
the myosin and actin filaments pull them
towards one another
• this increases the overlap and pulls the Z lines
towards one another
Sliding filament
theory demo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWP1u7rRJS8
MOTOR NEURONE STRUCTURE
CELL BODY
• includes nucleus and cytoplasm
• membrane is receptive to stimuli from other
neurones
DENDRITES
• highly branched processes which extend out
from the cell body
• specialised to receive stimuli from sensory
organs or from other neurones
AXON
• conducts nerve impulses to other cells (nerve,
muscle, gland cells)
• special structures include :
– myelin sheath insulates nerve
– nodes of Ranvier are gaps in myelin sheath
where action potential jumps from node to
node
– axon terminal ends with synaptic end bulbs
containing neurotransmitter substances
– enabling action potential to be applied to
adjacent cells
Module 2562 A.1.15
Motor Unit demo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKb20ri05pQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKr04bsVF3M&feature=related
FIBRE TYPE and EXERCISE
RECRUITMENT
• based on intensity of exercise
• at low intensity ST motor units recruited
first
•
at higher intensity FO FT IIa motor units
recruited
•
at greatest intensity FG FT IIb motor
units recruited to produce powerful fast
muscle
contractions
all available fibres are recruited for all power
activities
•
RESPONSES TO TRAINING
• endurance training results in type IIb being converted to type IIa
• endurance training increases the aerobic capacity of ST fibres
• explains why long steady training results in loss of speed
• high intensity anaerobic training causes increase in size of FT fibres
(hypertrophy), and number of FT fibres (hyperplasia)
• lack of training causes atrophy
FIBRE TYPE RANGE IN SPORTS PERFORMERS
activity
average % ST
MALES
marathon
81
cross country skiers
64
cyclists
59
800m runners
52
untrained
47
shot putters
39
sprinters
40
FEMALES
cross country skiers
cyclists
800m runners
untrained
shot putters
sprinters
59
54
62
53
53
32
range of % ST
50 - 98
52 - 75
52 - 72
40 - 62
42 - 76
19 - 57
20 - 53
47 - 74
37 - 66
44 - 73
30 - 72
50 - 55
28 - 32
– proportions of fibre types are genetically determined
– this could account for specialisms of individuals
1.Which fibre type?
• Marathon
• Distance swimmer
• Basketball
• Endurance cyclist
• Long jump
• Sprinter
2.What difference is there between male and female performers
in these sports in terms of fibre types?
3.Will a 40 year old runner have different fibre types from when
they were 20
4.Why is a warm up important regards to fibre types?
5.How can you adapt training sessions so that you just overload
either slow or fast firbers?
6.What is the sliding filament theory?

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