HACCP A TRAINING MANUAL - Caribbean Hotel and Tourism

Report
Tourism- Agriculture Linkages
• Good Agricultural Practices •
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Introduction to HACCP
1
SUPPLY CHAIN FROM
FARM TO TABLE
Consumer
Food Service Operators
Food Service Distributors
Transporters
Minimal Processing
Production
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Inputs
Retailers
Retail Distributors
Wholesalers
Packing and Repacking
Cooling and Storage
2
INTRODUCTION
What is HACCP
Food Safety - The Big Picture
Pre-Requisite Programmes
HACCP Implementation at Plant
Level
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Legislative framework - Global
• World Health Organisation
• Food and Agriculture Organisation of
the UN
 Codex Alimentarius
 Bioterrorism Act
 CAHFSA, CROSQ and NAHFCA
 CTC, NRA-ServSafe
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• Traceability EU Directive EC
178/2002 – 2005
– All Edible products, despite of their origin, will
have to be accompanied by detailed information
on source, production system and processing
procedures so as to make consumers, sanitary
and inspection institutions able to follow back
and forward the distribution stream of the
product.
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H.A.C.C.P.
Hazard
Analysis
Critical
Control
Points
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A system of Food Safety
management system focused on
PREVENTION of problems in
order to assure the production of
food products that are safe to
consume
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Based on a common-sense
application of technical and
scientific principles to the food
production processes FROM
FIELD TO TABLE.
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A HACCP programme deals with the
control of factors affecting ingredients,
products and process.
The objective of HACCP is to make
the product safe to consume, and to be
able to PROVE it.
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WHY HACCP???
• Growing Threats to Food Safety
• Customers wants at variance with
control measures
• It’s the LAW
• It’s the right thing to do
• It’s good for business
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Growing Threats to Food Safety
• Two decades ago: 7 microorganisms
• Today, at least 18 bacteria, 3 viruses or
virus groups, 10 protozoa and 5 toxins
• Foods historically thought of as safe,
(eggs and raw fruit juice, even breakfast
cereal), have become potential vehicles
for infectious disease.
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Growing Threats to Food Safety
• Food-borne bacteria are evolving into
more virulent strains. E. coli O157:H7,
which can cause fatal kidney diseases.
• In the case of egg nog (like Ponche
Cuba) – Salmonella, Listeria
• The causes of disease outbreaks are very
diffuse and complex
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Growing Threats to Food Safety
• Increasing public health concern about
chemical contamination of food:
– pesticides on imported fruits and local
vegetables,
– antibiotics in milk and dairy products
– heavy metals in drinking water.
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It’s the LAW!
• UK Food Safety Act - Due Diligence,
Criminal Offence (£20,000, prison)
• EU, US and Canadian Food Law
• SPS Agreement under WTO
• Promoted and Endorsed by..
USFDA, USDA, NACMCF, Food Trade
Associations, WHO, FAO,
CODEX Alimentarius
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The Right Thing To Do
• Consumer HEALTH
AND SAFETY
cannot be
compromised!
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Good For Business
Brand Protection
Reputation Protection
Competitive Edge
Supplier Approval
Access to New Markets
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Product liability has moved in the
direction of better protection of
consumer interest. A reversal of
burden of proof has taken place.
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The consumer no longer has to
prove that a product has caused
an accident or damage. Instead,
the manufacturer or exporter has
to prove that his/her product has
not been the cause.
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Recordkeeping allows auditors
and inspectors to see how well a
firm is complying with food safety
laws over a period, rather than
how well it is doing on any given
day.
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HACCP is not a
“stand-alone”
programme.
Success depends on:
• Pre-Requisite
Programs
• Education and
Training
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Implementing HACCP
in the Plant
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Management Commitment
• CRITICAL
– Informing all staff of the implementation of
HACCP
– Identification of HACCP Team
– Approval of time for meetings/training sessions
for HACCP Team and production staff
– Approving finances for physical refurbishment
(based on Gap Audit)
– Purchasing equipment for monitoring and
verification
– Arbitrating on issues
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Preliminaries
• Assemble the HACCP Team
• Describe the Food and its Distribution
• Describe the Intended Use and Consumers of
the Food
• Develop a Flow Diagram which describes the
Process
• Verify the Flow Diagram
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HACCP Team
Should consist of individuals with different
specialities
Should include members who are DIRECTLY
INVOLVED with the plant’s daily operations.
Quality Control, Production, Engineering and
Maintenance and sanitation.
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SEVEN PRINCIPLES of
HACCP
• 1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis
• 2. Determine the Critical Control Points
CCPs
• 3. Establish critical limits
• 4. Establish monitoring procedures
• 5. Establish corrective actions
• 6. Establish verification procedures
• 7. Establish record-keeping and
documentation
procedures
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ORDERING
10 MIN. aT 240* F
CCP 5.
SAMPLING
COOLING
RETORTING
CCP 1.
RECEIVING
PACK IN RETORT
BASKET
WIPING OF CANS
RACKING
CCP 4
CCP2
SEAMING
SELECTING OPEN ACKEES
APPLY LID
SHELLING
CLEANING AND INSPECTION FOR
RAPHE & X.M.
LABELING /
PACKAGING
DISTRIBUTION.
END OF
PROCESS.
EXHAUSTING
CCP3
WEIGHING
FILIING BRINE INTO
CAN
WASHING
FILLING ACKEES
IN CAN
WEIGHING
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Conduct a Hazard Analysis
• The H and the A of HACCP, allow us
to identify Where and How biological,
chemical or physical hazards get into
the food.
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Determine
Critical Control Points (CCPs)
• The points at which these hazards
exist or can multiply to dangerous
levels are called Critical Control
Points. This is the CCP part of
HACCP.
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Question 1
Are control measures
place at this step?
in
Modify
process
YES
NO
Is control at this stage necessary for
safety?
YES
NO
Q2.
Does the process stage eliminate or
reduce the hazard to an acceptable level?
Not a CCP
NO
YES
Q3. Could contamination with the hazard
occur at unacceptable level(s)?
YES
NO
Not a CCP
Q4.
Will a subsequent process stage
eliminate or reduce the hazard to an
acceptable level?
YES
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Not a CCP
NO
CRITICAL
CONTROL
POINT.
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Establish Critical Limits
• At the CCPs, we establish maximum
and minimum levels for the hazard,
at which it would pose very little or
no risk to the consumer. These
limits are called Critical Limits.
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Principle 3 – Establish Critical
Limits
•
•
•
•
What is the target
How far either side of this is ok
Are the limits appropriate
Are they measurable in real time
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Establish Monitoring Procedures
• At the CCPs, we have to ensure that
there is no risk of the existence or
build-up of the hazard. We therefore
have to check for the evidence of the
hazard using a Monitoring
Procedure.
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Principle 4 – Establish
Monitoring Systems
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chemical or microbiological analysis
Physical examination
In line systems
Determine frequency
Identify responsibility
Identify training requirements
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Monitoring Procedures must
provide evidence of:
•
•
•
•
WHAT is being monitored
HOW it is being monitored
WHEN you monitor
WHO does the monitoring
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Establish Corrective Actions
• If something goes wrong at a
CCP, and the risk of a hazard
developing or building up in
the food increases, we must
have a Corrective Action to
bring the CCP back under
control.
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Principle 5 – Corrective Action
• What happens if outside critical
limits
• Who is responsible
• Where is action recorded
• Quarantine procedures
• Is corrective action effective
• Will it happen again
• Preventive action
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Establish Verification Procedures
Calibration checks
Procedures
Internal Audits
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Establish Record Keeping
Procedures
• The records of what happens at a
CCP must be continuously reviewed
by the supervisors in the plant to
ensure that control is maintained.
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Establish Record Keeping
Procedures
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Typical Documentation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Stage
CCP?
Target
Critical limit
Monitoring
frequency
Responsibility
Corrective action
Responsibility
Documentation
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bottle rinsing
Yes
Rinse water 5 psi
<4 psi
Hourly
Line staff
Quarantine and inspect
Line Manager
QA 5/23
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•
•
•
•
Does study7cover
all hazards
Principle
- Validation
Do CCPs control hazards identified
Is corrective action effective
Does everyone understand their
responsibility
• Does everyone understand why
• Is everyone committed to HACCP
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Post HACCP considerations
•
•
•
•
•
Internal audit
Frequency of HACCP team meetings
Frequency of full review
How is new plant considered
Introduction of new products
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Transfer of the Plan
to the Production Staff
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Some Challenges
Age and Educational Level
Hiring practices - trainability of staff
Socio-Cultural Factors
Worker Ethic
Union Issues
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Some Challenges
Business Ownership and Nature
Access to finance
Institutional Support - reference labs,
Ministries
Policy Infrastructure for Compliance –
country accreditation and systems
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Introduction to HACCP
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