Staying in Balance METABOLISM, CALORIES & STRESS PLEASE Hold Questions until End Metabolism [ sum of all chemical reactions in body] CATABOLISM ANABOLISM break into simplest parts build / repair / fuel FATS: fatty acids & glycerol glycerol & fatty acids = FATS CARBOHYDRATES: simple sugars Glycogen -> glucose glucose- fructose – galactose Amino acids -> PROTEIN PROTEIN: amino acids GLUCONEOGENESIS Hunger = hun·ger ˈhəNGɡər/ noun a feeling of discomfort or weakness caused by lack of food, coupled with the desire to eat. [ physiological] Satiety = sa·ti·e·ty səˈtīədē/ nountechnical the feeling or state of being sated. satisfied (an appetite or desire) [physiological] Appetite = ap·pe·tite ˈapəˌtīt/ Noun a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food [psychological] Body uses energy in form of Calories Calorie = kilocalories = kcals CARBOHYDRATES = 4 kcal/ gm [ 4.1] PROTEIN = 4 kcal / gm [ 4.1] FATS = 9 kcal / gm [ 9.5] ALCOHOL = 7 kcal / gm [oz] How many calories do I need? Basal Metabolic Rate [BMR] = Resting Metabolic Rate [RMR] Thermic Effect of Food [TEF] = 10% of RMR Physical Activity / Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis [ NEAT ] Gender Age Anthropomorphism / Genetics Food choices Mifflin St. Jeor Equation For men: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) +5 For women: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161 TOTAL DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE [TDEE] Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA): This is the amount of calories burned while exercising fluctuates daily Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF) digest food and absorb its nutrients, body uses energy in the form of calories. to estimate Daily caloric needs – Underweight Adults Normal Weight Adults Overweight Adults body weight [lbs] x 18 body weight [lbs] x 16 body weight [lbs] x 14 Muscle uses 6 calories / lb / day Adipose uses 2 calories / lb / day Bone uses 1 calorie / lb / day Internal organs use 24.4 calories / lb / day a calorie is a calorie is a calorie –or is it? Liquid calories Must chew to stimulate satiety signals Sweetened drinks: the more consumed the higher risk of CVD, obesity, diabetes Soup – stimulates satiety Chocolate calories Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar Chocolove’s Extra Strong Dark Chocolate 77% cocoa 210 calories 26 grams of carbs / 24 grams of sugar 170 calories 13 grams of fat / 8 grams of sat.fat 11 grams of carbs / 6 grams of sugar 13 grams of fat / 8 grams sat fat 43 -gm serving [ 1 bar] 30-gram serving [ 1/3 of bar] Insulin Made in pancreas Released in response / anticipation : food ingestion Assists in cellular uptake of fats & carbohydrates & protein Turns on brain satiety signals Stress EUSTRESS VS DISTRESS STRESSOR: anything that knocks you out of balance [HOMEOSTASIS] PHYSICAL – SOCIAL – PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSE: what body does to re-establish balance same response for all stressors ACUTE VS CHRONIC Basic Stress Response Brain receives information that in danger [ physical, social or psychological source] It releases CRH [blunts appetite] and Noradrenaline CRH [ sec ]-> ACTH [ seconds ] -> Cortisol [stimulates appetite / suppresses sensitivity to leptin] [minutes ]-> glucose & fatty acids Noradrenaline [ seconds] -> Adrenaline [ minutes] - > affects body systems Pancreas releases Glucagon -> glucose Leptin: hormone released by adipose tissue in response to increased stores of fatty acids – suppresses appetite Stress hormones Glucocorticoids primarily Cortisol – made in adrenal glands. Stimulated by pituitary hormone [ACTH] which is triggered by CRH [ hypothalamus] in response to noradrenaline Glucagon - made in pancreas. Breaks down glycogen in liver Adrenaline / Noradrenaline [ epinephrine / norepinephrine] - Sympathetic Nervous System response – triggers adrenal glands, and affects body systems [ FIGHT – FLIGHT – FREEZE] Cortisol [produced in Adrenal Cortex; highest levels in AM; produced as a result of Sympathetic Nervous System activation] ACUTE STRESS CHRONIC STRESS Quick burst of energy [ survival] fatigue Heightened memory functions Impaired cognitive performance Increased Immunity Blood sugar imbalances Lower pain sensitivity High Blood Pressure Assists with homeostasis Decreased Immunity and Inflammatory response; slow wound healing Appetite Suppressor Increased abdominal adiposity Appetite Stimulant [ 75% US population] Any type is effective in decreasing stress, anxiety and depression Suppresses release of Cortisol and Adrenaline Stimulates release of Endorphins Improves Sleep & Increases Energy Enhances self Image; Self Confidence Questions?