Controlled and Delayed Release Nitrogen Fertilizer Trials

Report
CONTROLLED AND
DELAYED RELEASE
NITROGEN FERTILIZER
TRIALS
Matt Ruark, Dept. Soil Sci.
Nav Ghimire, UWEX Green Lake County
Joe Lauer, Dept. Agronomy.
Thierno Diallo, Dept. Agronomy.
NITROGEN FERTILIZERS
Controlled-release
Polymer-coated
ESN® (Agrium)
The polymer coating
expands with heat, allowing
water in to dissolve the urea.
The soluble N then diffuses
out of the porous coating.
NITROGEN FERTILIZER
Delayed release
 Contains a chemical that stops part of the N
cycle
 Urease inhibitors
 Inhibits conversion of urea to ammonia
 NBPT
 Agrotain
 Nitrification inhibitors
 Inhibits conversion of ammonium to nitrate
 DCD
 SuperU (contains both NBPT and DCD, impregnated into
the urea granule)
QUESTION
Is there a reliable benefit to using PCU, urease
inhibitors, or nitrification inhibitors in
Wisconsin?
These products come at a premium so there
needs to be an economic benefit when using
them.
Greater yield at the same rate of N
Same yield with lower rate of N
N FERTILIZER TRIALS IN WISCONSIN
Arlington, WI
 SuperU, ESN, and ammonium nitrate (AN) on corn
Green Lake, WI
 SuperU, Agrotain, ESN, and urea on no-till corn
2009-2012 TRIALS
Part of long-term rotation and tillage study at
Arlington, WI
Rotation
 Corn following corn
 Corn following soybean
Tillage
 Chisel plow
 No-till
N applied at planting at a rate of 180 lb/ac
Chisel Plow systems
Prev.
Crop
N Source
2009
Corn Yield
2010
2011
2012
Average
172
157
161
212
204
203
201
196
206
231
233
231
Corn
AN
ESN
SuperU
224
212
213
bu/ac
260
193
261
186
249
188
Soybean
AN
ESN
SuperU
246
240
249
268
272
268
210 b
223 a
201 b
No-till systems
Prev.
Crop
N Source
2009
Corn
AN
ESN
SuperU
207
207
207
Soybean
AN
ESN
SuperU
248
241
239
Corn Yield
2010
2011
2012
Average
bu/ac
224 ab
183
236 a
186
216 b
177
160
167
161
194
199
190
203
182
201
235
224
226
264
253
255
223 a
218 a
208 b
2012 AND 2013 TRIALS
Location: Green Lake County
Two fields per farm
 Corn following corn (no-till)
 Corn following soybean (no-till)
APPROACH
Fertilizers
 Urea
 Agrotain
 SuperU
 ESN
Rate
 “recommended” vs. 20% reduction
CC: 170 vs 135
CS: 150 vs 120
Controls (unreplicated) of 0 and 200 lb/ac N
ECONOMICS
Assuming…
Urea is $550/ton (~$0.60/lb-N)
ESN is $750/ton (~$0.82/lb-N)
If N application is 150 lb-N/ac and
if corn is $4/bu, then need 8 bu/ac gain
If corn is $5/bu, then need 6-7 bu/ac gain
2012 CORN-CORN
135 VS. 170 LB-N/AC
2012 Corn Yields, Green Lake County
Corn following corn / Sandy Loam
180
160
120
100
80
60
40
20
a(
20
0
)
e
U
re
N
on
ES
N
ES
N
U
Su
p
er
U
Su
p
er
n
ai
ro
t
Ag
ro
t
ai
n
a
Ag
U
re
a
0
U
re
Corn Yield (bu/ac)
140
2013 CORN-CORN
135 VS. 170 LB/AC
2013 Corn Yield, Green Lake County
Corn following corn, Sandy Loam
250
150
100
50
re
a(
20
0)
N
on
e
U
ES
N
ES
N
0
U
re
a
U
re
Ag a
ro
ta
i
Ag n
ro
ta
in
Su
pe
rU
Su
pe
rU
Corn Yield (bu/ac)
200
2013 CORN-SOYBEAN
120 VS. 150 LB-N/AC
2013 Corn Yield, Green Lake County
Corn following soybean, Sandy Loam
150
100
50
U
re
a(
20
0)
N
on
e
ES
N
ES
N
0
U
re
a
U
re
Ag a
ro
ta
i
Ag n
ro
ta
in
Su
pe
rU
Su
pe
rU
Corn Yield (bu/ac)
200
RESULTS
 These data show that yield gains when applying
optimum N rates are not often nor consistently
observed.
 The rainfall patterns of the season will create the
situation where the product is valuable or not
(i.e. early season intense rains).
 These products were applied at planting. Perhaps
greater value if applied 2-3 weeks prior to
planting (i.e. more time to protect).
 The products work, but need to be tested on your
fields to find the benefit, mostly likely coming
from reduced N rates.
WHERE IS THE VALUE?
QUESTIONS?
COMMENTS?
CONCERNS?

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