- eXtension

Report
Manure 101
Angela Rieck-Hinz, Iowa State University
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Outline
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What is Manure?
Production of Manure
Forms of Manure
Collection/Handling/Storage/Application
Manure and Environment
Manure Uses
Regulations
Assistance
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Benefits and Challenges to Manure
Production and Use
Benefits
• Readily available nutrient
source
• All nutrients are supplied for
crop/forage/horticultural
production
• Increase water-holding
capacity/infiltration/organic
matter of soils
• Could be sold or exchanged
for goods/profit
• Reduces commercial fertilizer
inputs
Challenges
• Odor
• Flies
• Storage
• Handling
• Lack of available
application area
• Not easy to balance
nutrients
• It can be hard work
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
What is Manure?
• Manure is a mixture of feces and urine and can
include other things such as bedding, spilled
feedstuffs, feathers, hair and soil
• It may also include wash-water from milking parlors
or egg-wash facilities, and run-on water.
• Manure can be used as fertilizer source, soil
amendment, feedstuff, bedding and energy source
• Manure from any source can cause water quality
pollution if not managed properly
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Pasture-based Animals and Manure
• Do not overstock
• Collection is not necessary (usually)
• Even distribution might be needed
– Rotational grazing
– Move feed and water stations
– Collection of manure and re-distribution
• Keep animals out streams and ponds
• Do not overgraze
– Erosion, compaction, runoff
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Production of Manure
Per Animal Per Day
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Horse (1,100)
Dairy (1,400)
Beef (1,000)
Swine (150)
Sheep (100)
Goat (63)
Broiler (2)
Layer (4)
Turkey (20)
50 lb/day
148 lb/day
80 lb/day
9.5 lb/day
4 lb/day
3.5lb/day
0.18lb/day
0.26 lb/day
0.90 lb/day
9 ton/year
27 ton/year
14 ton/year
1.73 ton/year
0.73 ton/year
0.64 ton /year
0.03 tons/year
0.05 tons/year
0.16 tons/year
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure plus Bedding
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Primary use is to absorb moisture
Use only what is needed
Remove manure and dirty bedding
Make sure your bedding source is compatible with
your manure handling, storage and land application
methods
• Make sure you include bedding volume when
calculating storage volume needed
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Forms of Manure
• Solid
– With or without bedding/soil additions
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Semi-Solid
Slurry
Liquid
Understanding and recognizing forms of manure
can help identify manure
collection/handling/storage and land
application equipment.
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Collection/Handling
• Have access to equipment that fits your scale of
operation
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure Storage
The primary principles of manure storage are:
• Store manure when land application is hampered by
unsuitable weather/soil conditions
• Land-apply manure at times suitable for crop use
• Better match producer’s time and labor supply
• To protect nearby water sources
• Depending on system, can control or reduce odors
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage
• Sized to hold manure between periods of land
application
• Sized to hold all manure during winter months
• Extra storage is always recommended
• Storage requirements may be dictated by
– State regulations
– Design standards if seeking financial assistance
– Integrator design standards
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage Structures
Benefits
• Separation of manure from
animals
• Easier collection
• Can reduce contact with
outside water sources
• Can provide storage during
inclement weather
• Can help “conserve”
nutrients*
• Can hide manure/aesthetics
Challenges
• Might need to handle
manure more than once
• Cost of building and
maintaining structures
• Odor
• Location and sometimes
type and size of storage
must take into account
state or federal setbacks.
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Storage Location
• Site storage locations near manure sources
• Easy access for equipment and during bad weather
• Locate in a place where storage can be expanded if
necessary
• Keep away from low areas, streams, floodplains, or
other places water flows
• Downwind from neighbors
• Use “aesthetics” to hide storage facilities
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Types of Storage Structures
• Solid Manure Storage
– Bedded packs; poultry operations with litter;
separated solids; stockpiling and stacking sheds.
• Slurry Storage
– Under floor pits; earthen basins; roofed or
unroofed concrete or steel tanks;
• Liquid Storage
– Treatment lagoons; open lot runoff holding
ponds
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Advantages and Disadvantages of
selected manure storage systems
The following slides offer advantages and
disadvantages of certain storage systems.
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure- Bedded Pack
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure –Bedded Pack
• Advantages
 No need to build storage
 Pack can generate heat for
animals
 Depending on cleaning
frequency- less bedding
needed
 No rainfall additions
 Little to no runoff
 High nutrient density
• Disadvantages
 Need bedding source
 Animals in constant
contact with manure and
dirty bedding- can lead to
some health concerns
 Infrequent removal can
require more work
 Flies/Odor
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure- Stockpiling
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure-Stockpiling
• Advantages
• Disadvantages
 Will compost if managed
correctly
 Temporary storage option
 Reduces animal contact with
dirty bedding and manure
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Handle manure twice
Odors if not managed properly
Flies/Rodents
Can absorb water
Regulations
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure –Stacking Shed
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Solid Manure -Stacking Shed
• Advantages
 Reduce or prevent addition of
water
 Used as a push wall to help
collect manure
 Hide manure/aesthetics
• Disadvantages
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Cost to build storage
Equipment
Odors
Flies
Handle twice
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure- Below Building Pit
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure - Below-Building Pit
• Advantages
 Relatively high nutrient
density
 Low/moderate nutrient loss
 No rainfall effects
 May only need to handle
manure during land
application
 Disadvantages
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Cost
May have more odor
May require ventilation
Animal/worker health
issues from prolonged
exposure to gases
 May not be appropriate for
areas with high water
tables or geologic concerns
 May be difficult to remove
solids from liquid pits
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure - Lagoon
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Liquid Manure- Lagoon
• Advantages
 Provides biological treatment of
manure
 Can be used as source of
irrigation water
 Can provide long-term storage
• Disadvantages
 Possible odors
 High loss of nitrogen due
to volatilization
 Hard to remove solids
 Phosphorus may build up
in solids
 Difficult to agitate
 May not be appropriate for
areas with high water
tables or geologic concerns
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Other Storage Options
• Generally for small volumes or daily
application
– Manure Spreader
• Short term for small amounts, or
• Daily scrape and haul systems
– Garbage cans/wood or metal bins
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Land Application
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Application
• Determine application rate based on nutrient
needs of crops
• Adequate capacity of application equipment
• Calibrate manure application equipment
• Achieve uniform distribution
• Avoid repeated application in same area
• Do not apply manure in the winter
• Follow all setbacks or land application
separation distances
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Off-Site Transfer
• Possible solution if lack of storage or application
area
• Disposal through trash services?
• Use in garden/horticultural venues
• Distribute to crop farmers
• Be aware
– Regulations
– Transportation Issues
– Liability
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment
• Generally speaking, manure management
and environmental protection should not be
at odds
• The concept of the nutrient cycle should be
the basis for nutrient use.
• However, concerns include water quality, soil
quality and air quality issues
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment
• Water Quality Issues for both Surface and
Ground Water Sources
– Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Organic Matter, Pathogens
– Too much of anything
in the wrong place can be
a bad thing
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure and the Environment
• Air Quality
– Emissions, odor and dust can be generated from
the animal production system, the manure
collection and storage system and the land
application system.
– Concerns arise over animal and human health
issues and property values
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure Uses
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Nutrient Resources for Crops
Energy Production
Feedstuffs
Other Uses
– Asphalt
– Erosion control materials
– Building products
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning
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Inventory
Sampling and Analysis
Application
Assessment or Feedback
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning
• Inventory
– Animal Numbers
– Manure Nutrients Produced
– Crops to be Grown and Yields
– Acres Available for Nutrients
– Other Nutrient Sources
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.
• Sampling and Analysis
– Take soil and manure samples
– Soil Analysis
– Manure Analysis
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Nitrogen
Phosphorous
Potassium
pH
Moisture Content
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.
• Application
– Prioritize fields based on crop nutrient needs and
risk to environment
– Apply the right rate
– Apply an uniform rate
– Apply manure in the right place in the field
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Nutrient Management Planning cont.
• Assessment or Feedback
– Evaluate soil P and K levels over time to
determine how manure application affects soil
test levels
– Use appropriate tests to determine N supply to
crops
• Examples include the Late Spring Nitrate Test and the
Cornstalk N Test
– Adjust and refine the process as needed
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Manure Regulations
• Determine governing body in your state
• Determine how your livestock operation is
classified
• Know how many animals and what animal
types are represented on your farm and how
those numbers fit into state and federal
regulations
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Regulations
• At the very least:
– Know setback distances for land application
– Keep manure and wastewater out of surface
waters
– Apply manure according to a manure or nutrient
management plan
– Know and follow air quality regulations if they
apply in your state
– Keep good records
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
Assistance
• The following groups can offer technical
and/or financial assistance
– State/Federal regulatory agency
– NRCS
– Local watershed groups
– Extension Service
– Consulting Engineers, Crop Consultants, Feed
Dealers, Local Agronomists
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)
The Scoop on Poop
• There are many different types of livestock,
poultry and manure systems out there
– If you want to start a new operation or expand
an existing operation take time to visit different
systems and talk to owners about what works
and what does not work
– Pencil it out to make sure it works
– Find trusted advisers who can offer sound advice
– Never stop learning or asking questions
Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA)

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