The Constitution: A More Perfect Union

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THE CONSTITUTION:
A MORE PERFECT UNION
UNIT 3: A BRAND NEW DAY
WARM UP
“If men were angels, no government would be necessary”
- James Madison
Directions: Answer the follow questions in your notebook.
1. In your own words, what is James Madison saying?
2. According to Madison, why are governments
necessary?
3. Do you agree with Madison? Why or why not?
VOCABULARY
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Popular Sovereignty
Legislative Branch
Executive Branch
Judicial Branch
Judicial Review
Checks and Balances
Interstate Commerce
Federalism
Majority Rule
Interest Groups
Separation of Powers
GOVERNMENT ON TWO LEVELS FEDERALISM
• The U.S. Constitution creates a central government that deals
with issues that affect the entire country.
• Each state also has its own state government that only
handles the affairs of the state.
• The division of power between a central government and
state governments is called federalism.
• The federal government gets all of its power from the
Constitution.
• Federal power is divided among three branches of
government, the executive, the judicial, and the
THE SUPREMACY CLAUSE
“This Constitution, and the laws of the United States
which shall be made in pursuance thereof…shall be
the supreme law of the land.”
• Federal laws passed by Congress are superior to
state laws.
FEDERAL POWER
• The Constitution gives most of the federal power to
Congress, because they represent the citizens in their
home states.
• Expressed Powers – Actually states or expressed in the
Constitution.
• Implied Powers – Not expressly stated in the Constitution.
• Necessary and Proper Clause – implied powers come from the
necessary and proper clause that implies Congress may make
any law necessary for carrying out its expressed powers.
FEDERAL POWER IN ACTION
• Sometimes Congress exercises powers it does not
appear to have.
• Louisiana Purchase – 1803
• Purchased land doubling the size of the U.S. from France
• Civil Rights Act of 1964
• Congress wanted to prohibit racial discrimination in America,
but they do not have the expressed power to do so.
• Congress has the power to control interstate commerce and
since almost everything has to do with interstate commerce
Congress used this link to create the law.
• Finding these links is how Congress takes many actions that, at
first, appear to be beyond its power.
FEDERALISM TODAY
• Does the federal government have the power to…
• Pass laws about guns?
• Health care?
• Schools?
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Federalism
• A federal government splits
power between independent
states and a central
government.
• The power rests in both
places, and each gets its
authority from a governing
document.
• The states and central
government must work
together and balance each
other out, like a set of chairs
around the table.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Federalism
• A federal government splits
power between independent
states and a central
government.
• The power rests in both
places, and each gets its
authority from a governing
document.
• The states and central
government must work
together and balance each
other out, like a set of chairs
around the table.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Federalism
• A federal government splits
power between independent
states and a central
government.
• The power rests in both
places, and each gets its
authority from a governing
document.
• The states and central
government must work
together and balance each
other out, like a set of chairs
around the table.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Confederation
• Association of independent
states. Power rests in each
individual state, whose
representatives meet to
address the needs of the
group.
• A confederation of states is
like a bunch of different
chairs grouped together.
They hold power
independently, but work
collectively.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Confederation
Strength of Weakness
• Association of independent
states. Power rests in each
individual state, whose
representatives meet to
address the needs of the
group.
• Keeps the power of
government at the local
level.
• States cooperate without
losing their
independence.
• Central government may
be too weak to be
effective.
• Laws may differ from
state to state, no
uniformity.
• A confederation of states is
like a bunch of different
chairs grouped together.
They hold power
independently, but work
collectively.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Unitary
• All power rests in a central
government.
• Country may be divided into
states or other sub-units, but they
have no power of their own.
• England depends on a
Parliament to create and
enforce their laws. The leader of
the nation, the Prime Minister, is a
member of Parliament and does
not have any more power than
its members.
• A unitary government is like a big
chair, with all of the governments
power sitting in one place.
IF NOT FEDERALISM, THEN WHAT?
Unitary
Strength of Weakness
• All of the power rests in a central
government.
• Country may be divided into
states or other sub-units, but they
have no power of their own.
• England depends on a
Parliament to create and
enforce their laws. The leader of
the nation, the Prime Minister, is a
member of Parliament and does
not have any more power than
its members.
• Uniform laws, policies and
enforcement across the
country.
• Little conflict between
state and national
governments.
• Government may be slow
to meet local problems.
• Difficult to meet all the
needs of its citizens.
• A unitary government is like a big
chair, with all of the governments
power sitting in one place.
DIRECTIONS
Window
Row
Middle
Row
Door
Row
• You and your
partner will read
one of the following
sections:
• Section 3
• Section 4
• Section 5
DIRECTIONS
1. Working with your partner, read your assigned
section. Complete the Reading Notes in your
notebook for that section.
2. Repeat Steps 1 to 4 until you have completed the
reading notes and the questions for Sections 3 to
5.
3. If you finish all 3 sections before the rest of the
class, you should define your vocabulary words or
work on the vocabulary crossword puzzle.
THE CONSTITUTION
Window
Row
Middle
Row
Door
Row
• Now we will work on
Sections 6 to 8. You
and your partner
will read one of the
following scenarios.
• Section 6
• Section 7
• Section 8
DIRECTIONS
1. Working with your partner, read your assigned
section. Complete the Reading Notes in your
notebook for that section.
2. Repeat Steps 1 to 4 until you have completed the
reading notes and the questions for Sections 3 to
5.
3. If you finish all 3 sections before the rest of the
class, you should define your vocabulary words or
work on the vocabulary crossword puzzle.
CONSTITUTIONAL BAR EXAM
• Work with your partner to complete the processing
assignment. Follow all of the directions.

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