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Report
MBA 500
Workshop 3
Foundations of ProblemBased Learning
Joseph Lewis Aguirre
WS3T1 - Critical Analysis in DM
WS3T2 - Critical Analysis in DM
WS4T1 - Critical Analysis in DM
Creating Effective Presentations: MS
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Practice, practice, practice. Use Rehearse Timings.
WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies
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Define the value of the MBA.
University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s
Value of critical thinking in decision making.
UOP Library.
APA method for scholastic writing.
Center for Writing Excellence.
Plagiarism Checker.
Collaborative learning.
WS2: Key Concepts in Decision Making
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Justify the use of decision-making models.
Analyze the elements of decision-making models.
Perform a situation analysis.
Differentiate between symptoms and problems.
Develop alternative solutions.
Evaluate alternative solutions.
Describe how personal, cultural, and
organizational values impact ethical decisionmaking.
• Select the best possible solution.
WS3: Critical Analysis in Decision
Making
• Examine the 9-step decision-making model.
• Explain each step of the problem-solving model.
• Explain the interrelationship among the problem
solution, individual ethical values, and stakeholder
values.
• Create an effective presentation.
Decision Making Preconditions
1. There must be an awareness of the
existence of a gap
2. There must be a perceived need to solve
the problem
3. There must be some way to measure the
size of the gap
4. The skills and resources needed to solve
the problem must be present or at least
easily obtainable
Critical Thinking Process
Developing
Person
No
Customary
Assumptions,
Habits
Question
New
Yes Assumptions,
Habits
Relationship
Work Political
Decision Making Process
Intelligent Phase
Design Phase
Choice
Objectives
Problem statement
Data Collection
Modeling
Criteria
Alternatives
Solutions to the Model
Sensitivity Analysis
Plan for implementation
Implementation
UOP MODEL
•Describe the situation
•Describe end state & goals
•Develop & implement the
solution
•Evaluate results
•Identify alternatives
•Evaluate alternatives
•Identify & assess risks
UOP MODEL
•Describe the situation
•Describe end state & goals
UOP MODEL
•Identify alternatives
•Evaluate alternatives
•Identify & assess risks
UOP MODEL
UOP MODEL
•Develop & implement the solution
•Evaluate results
Framing the Problem Qs (1-3)
Does a problem really exist?
Is a knowledge-based approach suited?
– Is human knowledge being represented?
– Is this knowledge heuristic or algorithmic?
– Does the knowledge change or remain constant?
– Is the expertise well understood?
– Are the inputs complete and correct?
– Can the problem be solved using other methods?
– Can the problem pass the telephone test?
Is a knowledge-based approach justified?
Framing the Problem Qs (1-3)
Do you have the required resources?
Management support:
Do you have the support of the expert?
Is the expert competent?
Is the expert articulate?
Is the expert in close physical proximity?
Framing the Problem Phase (1-3)
a) Identify the problem
b) Define the objective
1) Desired outcome
2) Present state
3) Gap analysis
c) Define goals
1) Means to obtain objective
2) Define steps
d) Define criteria
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Timely
Framing the Problem Phase (1-3)
e) Evaluate effects of the problem
1)
2)
3)
4)
Who/What is affected
How are they affected
Costs/benefit
Do nothing?
Problem Formulation (1-3)
f)
Forces of Influence
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
g)
Contextual factors
Urgency
Importance
Individual Versus group
Personal attributes
Thinking styles
Stakeholders and interests
Collective perception
Comparative Methods
1) Tools
i. Financial reports
ii. Control charts
2) Techniques
i. Brainstorming
ii. Fishbone diagrams
Problem Statements (1-3)
a)
Using Comparative Methods
b) Clear, Concise, Measurable and Comprehensive
Problem ID & Formulation (1-3)
• Framing the problem phase
–Describe the situation
–Frame the problem
– describe end goals
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Framing the problem
–Define criteria
–Evaluate effects of the
problem
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Problem formulation
–Forces of influence
• Contextual factors
• Urgency
• Importance
• Individual vs. group
Problem or Solution
No
Should convicted
murderers be subject to
death penalty?
Current situation
Desired Situation
Objective
Yes
Problem Statement
Current situation
Desired Situation
Objective
Accountability
Re-habilitation
Once released they murder again
Why Should
convicted
murderers be
put to death?
Crime prevention Example
Religious
Problem Solving
Why should convicted murderers be subject to
the death penalty?
Rate of convicted murderers being released back
into society and committing murder again is
increasing. We need to determine how to prevent
convicted murderers from killing again.
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Problem formulation
– Forces of influence (cont.)
• Personal attributes
• Thinking styles
• Stakeholders & their interests
• Collective perception
– Comparative methods
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Comparative methods
–Tool examples
• Financial reports
• Process control charts
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Comparative methods (cont.)
–Technique examples
• Brainstorming
• Affinity diagram
• Fishbone diagram
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Problem statements
–Formulate an effective
problem statement
–Clear, concise, measurable, &
comprehensive
Problem Identification & Formulation
• Decision Making Tools and
Techniques:
Subjectivity vs. objectivity
–Comparative methods
Making The Decision Phase (4)
4. Identify Alternatives/Causes
–Fishbone diagram
–Pareto charts
–Flow charts
–Scatter diagrams
–Statistical Process Control Chart
Making The Decision Phase (5-7)
5. Framing Alternatives
6. Evaluating Impact of alternatives
7. Make the decision
Forces of Influence
• Broad
–Physiology, psychology, sociology
• Narrow
–Gender, age, birth, order,
culture, education, economic
status, religion, etc.
Forces of Influence
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Contextual factors
Urgency
Importance
Biases
Thinking styles
Self-limiting choices.
1.
2.
Bounded rationality.
Paradigms.
g. Stakeholders and their interests.
h. Group dynamics factors.
1.
2.
3.
Group-think.
Group composition.
Power.
Forces of Influence
• Broad
– Physiology, psychology, sociology
• Narrow
– Gender, age, birth, order, culture,
education, economic status,
religion, etc.
Optical Perception
Optical Perception
Optical Perception
Optical Perception
Decision Making Framework
Information
Characteristics
Decision Structure
Business Professionals
Structured
Semi Structured
Un Structured
Operational
Management
Efficient, do thing right
Tactical Management
Business Unit Managers
-Effective, right thing
Strategic Management
Executives, Directors
-Transformation
RELATIVE TIME SPAN
Pre specified
Scheduled
Detailed
Frequent
Historical
Internal
Narrow Focus
Ad Hoc
Unscheduled
Summarized
Infrequent
Forward looking
External
Wide Scope
Values
Honesty
Customers
Employees
Safety
Competitors
Revenue
Profits
Alliances
New Products
New Markets
Ecology
Cutting Edge
Image
Fun
Growth
Family
Capital
Quality
Social Capital
Location
Hedonism
Risk
Collaboration
Centralization
Creativity
Other
Organizational Effectiveness
ENVIRONMENT
CLIMATE
Other Teams
Enthusiasm
STRUCTURE
Competition
Reward
System
Accountability
GOALS
Reporting
Relationships
Values
Clarity
Collaboration
Mission
Philosophy
Culture
Commitment
Stress
Feedback
System
Flexibility
Marketplace
Decision
Making
Behavior
Norm
Involvement
Pressures
Trust
Competition
WS4: Key Concepts of Problem Based
Learning
• Evaluate information sources.
• Apply the principles of generic benchmarking.
• Describe how content in problem based learning
(PBL) is applied to the scenario.
• Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making
WS5: Impact of Risk and Ethics on
Decision Making
• Assess the risk of alternative action.
• Evaluate the probability and severity of risk
factors.
• Describe ways to mitigate risk.
• Infer stakeholder values with limited information.
WS6: Critical Analysis of Business
Solutions
• Develop measures (metrics) for performance
evaluation, the success of implementation, and the
attainment of end-state goals.
ETHICS
Common Denominator
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Krispy Kreme Doughnuts
CocaCola
Tyson Chicken
KPMG
Charity Companies
Class Action Law Firm Milberg Weiss
HealthSouth
eToys caretaker CEO, Paul Traub of Taub, Bonacquist
& Fox
• Sony BMG
• 124-Executive Tax Shelter
• Harvard University, Andrei Shleifer, (economics
professor), Jonathan Hay (attorney), Russian Aid $30M
Decisions
My BASIC principle is that you don't make
decisions because they are easy; you
don't make them because they are
cheap; you don't make them because
they're popular; you make them because
they're right
-- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame
Common Truth
Everything we say and do represents a
choice, &
How we decide determines the shape of
our lives.
- Josephson Institute of Ethics
Choices
Good Prudence
Bad
Vice
Self
Benevolence
Crime
Others
Choices
Ethical A
Legal
B
Legal
C
D
Illegal
ETHICS – NOT!
• Religion;
• Political stance;
• Fad
• Laws
• Absolutes
• Something that can only be understood by extremely
intelligent people.
ETHICS IS:
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What we believe, why we believe it, and
how we act out those beliefs;
Personal & public display of personal
attitudes and beliefs;
Fluid through different situations;
An aid in decision making; and
According to Aristotle:
a) A standard of behavior; &
b) An area of study exploring the nature of
morality. .
Standard of Conduct
Act with integrity
– Protect the privacy and confidentiality of
information
– Do not misrepresent or withhold information
– Do not misuse resources
– Do not exploit weakness of systems
– Set high standards
– Advance the health and welfare of general public
Ethics Decision Tree for CPAs
CPA’s Taxes and Code of Ethics
ETHICS - OBSTACLES
• If It is Necessary, it is Ethical-justify-the-means
reasoning
• The False Necessity Trap - As Nietzsche put it,
"Necessity is an interpretation, not a fact."
• If It’s Legal and Permissible, It’s Proper-. Ethical
people often choose to do less than the maximally
allowable, and more than the minimally acceptable.
• It’s Just Part of the Job- Fundamentally decent people
feel justified doing things at work that they know to be
wrong in other contexts.
• It’s All for a Good Cause- is a seductive rationale that
loosens interpretations of deception, concealment,
conflicts of interest, favoritism and violations of
established rules and procedures.
ETHICS - OBSTACLES
• It’s All for a Good Cause- is a seductive rationale that
loosens interpretations of deception, concealment,
conflicts of interest, favoritism and violations of
established rules and procedures.
• I Was Just Doing It for You -n"little white lies" or
withholding important information in personal or
professional relationships, such as performance reviews.
• I’m Just Fighting Fire With Fire- This is the false
assumption that promise-breaking, lying and other kinds
of misconduct are justified if they are routinely engaged
in by those with whom you are dealing.
• It Doesn’t Hurt Anyone - Used to excuse misconduct,
ETHICS - OBSTACLES
• Everyone’s Doing It - This is a false, "safety in numbers"
rationale fed by the tendency to uncritically treat cultural,
organizational or occupational behaviors as if they were
ethical norms, just because they are norms.
• It’s OK If I Don’t Gain Personally - This justifies
improper conduct done for others or for institutional
purposes on the false assumption that personal gain is
the only test of impropriety.
• I’ve Got It Coming - People who feel they are
overworked or underpaid rationalize that minor "perks"
• I Can Still Be Objective - By definition, if you’ve lost your
objectivity, you can’t see that you’ve lost your objectivity!
Ethical Considerations- Principles
– Proportionality: good must outweigh harm
– Informed Consent: understand and accept
risk
– Justice: fair distribution
– Minimized Risk: avoid unnecessary risk
Ethical Considerations – 6 Pillars of
Character
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6.
Trustworthiness.
Respect.
Responsibility.
Fairness.
Caring.
Citizenship.
Ethics Decisions - Requirements
Making ethical decisions requires the ability to make
distinctions between competing choices.
It requires training, in the home and beyond
Ethics Decisions - Conclusion
No one can simply read about ethics and become ethical.
People have to make many decisions under economic,
professional and social pressure.
Rationalization and laziness are constant temptations.
But making ethical decisions is worth it, if you want a
better life and a better world.
Keep in mind that whether for good or ill, change is
always just a decision away.
Ethical Considerations- Principles
– Proportionality: good must outweigh harm
– Informed Consent: understand and accept
risk
– Justice: fair distribution
– Minimized Risk: avoid unnecessary risk
Threshold of Pain
Sound
Pressure
Level
dBSPL
Increased Pain
160
140
120
100
Hearing threshold of pain found in literature
Pain recovery
varies by
individual
TOB Activation Functions
Unit Step
Sigmoid
Piecewise Linear
Gaussian
Identity
f (x) = x
Threshold of Belief
The unexamined life is not worth living (Socrates).
"[R]arely do we examine our lives to find out what kinds
of answers are evidenced by our actions, hesitations, and
indifferences and what ideas and mute beliefs we express
about the individual and society, about our own lives,
about our own freedom and responsibility." [Donald A.
Hansen, An Invitation to Critical Sociology: Involvement,
Criticism, Exploration 2 (New York: Free Press, 1976)]
Threshold of Belief
"Until we can understand the assumptions in which
we are drenched we cannot know ourselves."
[Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence:
Selected Prose 1966-1978 __ (New York: W.W.
Norton, 1979)]
The defenses that form a person's character support a
grand illusion.... He is driven away from himself, from
self-knowledge, self-reflection. He is driven toward things
that support the lie of his character, his automatic
equanimity." [Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death 56
(New York: Free Press, 1955)]
Threshold of Belief
"If individuals act automatically or conventionally, if they do
only what is expected of them (or because they feel they
have no right to speak for themselves), if they do only what
they are told to do, they are not living moral lives." [Maxine
Greene, Landscapes of Learning 49 (New York: Teachers
College Press, 1979)]
"As Jesus saw a man working on the Sabbath, he said to him: 'Man,
if you know what you are doing, you are blessed. If you do not
know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law.'" [Erich Kahler,
The Tower and the Abyss 191 (New York: Compass Books,
1967)(quoting the Bible, Luke 6:5)]
Threshold of Belief
"Many people only think in reaction to something and depend
heavily on the dominant ideologies. This can sometimes be a
way of protecting social status or privileges. That is how what
Nietzsche called the morals of slaves are formed." [Gérard
Fourez, Liberation Ethics 40 (Philadelphia: Temple University
Press, 1982)]
Threshold of Belief
Belief
Strength
Decrease Belief
Spiritual Space
Increased
Belief
Physical Space
Material Space
The Marketing Concept
Customer
Satisfaction
Profits
Company
Effort
Effective Presentations Skills
Experiential Presentations
Presenting is a Skill…
Developed through experience
and training.
Source: http://www.hplearningcenter.com
#1 Fear
• Feared More Than Death!
• THE FACTS: Shaky hands, blushing
cheeks, memory loss, nausea, and knocking
knees
• NORMAL!
Causes
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Fear of the Unknown OR Loss of Control
Fight or Flight Mode
No Backup Plan
No Enthusiasm For Subject
Focus of Attention
Effective Presentation
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Control Anxiety – Don’t Fight It
Audience Centered
Accomplishes Objective
Fun For Audience
Fun For You
Conducted Within Time Frame
Objective
1. Inform
2. Persuade
3. Educate
Planning a Presentation
Planning
1. Determine Purpose
2. Assess Your Audience
– “Success depends on your ability to reach
your audience.”
– Size
– Demographics
– Knowledge Level
– Motivation
Planning
3. Plan Space
– Number of Seats
– Seating Arrangement
– Audio/Visual Equipment
– Distracters
4. What Day and Time?
– Any Day!
– Morning
….and more Planning
5. Organization
– Determine Main Points (2-5)
– Evidence
– Transitions
– Prepare Outline
Organizing
Organizational Patterns
• Topical
• Chronological
• Problem/Solution
• Cause/Effect
Outline
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Keyword Reminders
Conversational Flow
Flexibility
More Responsive to Audience
The Presentation Sequence
#1: Build Rapport
• … relation marked by harmony or affinity
– Audience members who trust you and feel that you
care
• Start Before You Begin
– Mingle; Learn Names
– Opportunity to reinforce or correct audience
assessment
– Good First Impression
• People Listen To People They Like
#2: Opening Your Presentation
• Introduce Yourself – Why Should They Listen
• Get Attention, Build More Rapport, Introduce
Topic
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Humor
Short Story
Starling Statistic
Make Audience Think
Invite Participation
• Get Audience Response
#2…Completing the Opening
• Clearly Defining Topic
• If Informative…
– Clear parameters for content within time
• If Persuasive…
– What’s the problem
– Who cares
– What’s the solution
• Overview
#3: Presenting Main
Points (Solution)
• Main Point-Transition-Main PointTransition-MainPoint…..
• Supporting Evidence
• Examples
• Feedback & Questions From Audience
• Attention to, and Focus on, Audience
(Listening)
#4: Concluding Your
Presentation
Goal
• Inform audience that you’re about to close
• Summarize main points
• Something to remember or call-to-action
• Answer questions
“Tell ’em What You Told ‘em.”
Effective
Presentation Techniques
Presentation Style
3 Elements
1. Vocal Techniques
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Loudness
Pitch
Rate
Pause
Deviations From the Norm for Emphasis
Presentation Style (con’t)
3 Elements
2. Body Language
 Eye Contact, Gestures, Posture
3. Use of Space
 Can Everyone See You?
 Movement
Common Problems
• Verbal fillers
– “Um”, “uh”, “like”
– Any unrelated word or phrase
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Swaying, rocking, and pacing
Hands in pockets
Lip smacking
Fidgeting
Failure to be audience-centered
Creating Effective Visual Aids
Visual Aids
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Enhance Understanding
Add Variety
Support Claims
Lasting Impact
Used Poorly…A Distraction…Ineffective
Presentation
Visual Aids - Examples
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PowerPoint Slides
Overhead Trans
Graphs/Charts
Pictures
Films/Video
Flip Charts
Sketches
Visual Aids Should…
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Supplement presentation
Outline of main points
Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s
Simple and clear
Main Point 1: The Purpose of
Using Visual Aids
• Visual aids support your ideas and improve
audience comprehension of your presentation
• Visual aids add variety to your presentation by
giving the audience a break from listening and
letting the see something
• Visual aids help illustrate complex ideas or
concepts and are helpful in reinforcing your
ideas
Visual Aids
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Improve comprehension
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Add variety
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Illustrate complex ideas
Be Visible
• Titles should be 38-44 pt. font size
• Text should be 28 pt font size
• Use color wisely
– Contrasting colors
Problem Definition
• Narrow down what the problem is
• What are the unknowns?
• What are the data?
• What are the conditions?
• Can you satisfy the conditions?
• Introduce a suitable notation
• Separate the various parts of the conditions
Design
• Generate as many different ideas on how to solve
the problem as possible
• Have you seen the problem before in a different
form?
• Do you know of a related problem? Can you solve
it?
• Can you restate the problem?
• Can you find a connection between the data and
the unknown?
Selection
• Reduce the pool of ideas to one or two that will
likely solve the problem:. Maximizing?
Satisficing?
• Does the plan cover all of the data?
• Can the plan be implemented?
• Is it effective?
• Is it efficient?
• Fallacies?
Implementation
• Carry out the plan one step at a time
• Can you see that the step is correct?
• Can you prove that it is correct?
Evaluation
• Can you check the results?
• Can you derive the results differently?
• Can you use the results or the method for some
other problem?

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