MBA 500 Workshop 3 Foundations of ProblemBased Learning Joseph Lewis Aguirre WS3T1 - Critical Analysis in DM WS3T2 - Critical Analysis in DM WS4T1 - Critical Analysis in DM Creating Effective Presentations: MS • Start with the end in mind. Use the AutoContent Wizard to help you figure out what to say. Stick with what works. Use a template. Use the Outline view to write content quickly. Use images to liven things up. Present your data in a chart. Create your own template for repeated presentations. Color-coordinate your materials. Make your presentation available on the Web. Practice, practice, practice. Use Rehearse Timings. WS1: MBA Tools and Competencies • • • • • • • • Define the value of the MBA. University of Phoenix Vs other MBA’s Value of critical thinking in decision making. UOP Library. APA method for scholastic writing. Center for Writing Excellence. Plagiarism Checker. Collaborative learning. WS2: Key Concepts in Decision Making • • • • • • • Justify the use of decision-making models. Analyze the elements of decision-making models. Perform a situation analysis. Differentiate between symptoms and problems. Develop alternative solutions. Evaluate alternative solutions. Describe how personal, cultural, and organizational values impact ethical decisionmaking. • Select the best possible solution. WS3: Critical Analysis in Decision Making • Examine the 9-step decision-making model. • Explain each step of the problem-solving model. • Explain the interrelationship among the problem solution, individual ethical values, and stakeholder values. • Create an effective presentation. Decision Making Preconditions 1. There must be an awareness of the existence of a gap 2. There must be a perceived need to solve the problem 3. There must be some way to measure the size of the gap 4. The skills and resources needed to solve the problem must be present or at least easily obtainable Critical Thinking Process Developing Person No Customary Assumptions, Habits Question New Yes Assumptions, Habits Relationship Work Political Decision Making Process Intelligent Phase Design Phase Choice Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Modeling Criteria Alternatives Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation UOP MODEL •Describe the situation •Describe end state & goals •Develop & implement the solution •Evaluate results •Identify alternatives •Evaluate alternatives •Identify & assess risks UOP MODEL •Describe the situation •Describe end state & goals UOP MODEL •Identify alternatives •Evaluate alternatives •Identify & assess risks UOP MODEL UOP MODEL •Develop & implement the solution •Evaluate results Framing the Problem Qs (1-3) Does a problem really exist? Is a knowledge-based approach suited? – Is human knowledge being represented? – Is this knowledge heuristic or algorithmic? – Does the knowledge change or remain constant? – Is the expertise well understood? – Are the inputs complete and correct? – Can the problem be solved using other methods? – Can the problem pass the telephone test? Is a knowledge-based approach justified? Framing the Problem Qs (1-3) Do you have the required resources? Management support: Do you have the support of the expert? Is the expert competent? Is the expert articulate? Is the expert in close physical proximity? Framing the Problem Phase (1-3) a) Identify the problem b) Define the objective 1) Desired outcome 2) Present state 3) Gap analysis c) Define goals 1) Means to obtain objective 2) Define steps d) Define criteria 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Timely Framing the Problem Phase (1-3) e) Evaluate effects of the problem 1) 2) 3) 4) Who/What is affected How are they affected Costs/benefit Do nothing? Problem Formulation (1-3) f) Forces of Influence 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) g) Contextual factors Urgency Importance Individual Versus group Personal attributes Thinking styles Stakeholders and interests Collective perception Comparative Methods 1) Tools i. Financial reports ii. Control charts 2) Techniques i. Brainstorming ii. Fishbone diagrams Problem Statements (1-3) a) Using Comparative Methods b) Clear, Concise, Measurable and Comprehensive Problem ID & Formulation (1-3) • Framing the problem phase –Describe the situation –Frame the problem – describe end goals Problem Identification & Formulation • Framing the problem –Define criteria –Evaluate effects of the problem Problem Identification & Formulation • Problem formulation –Forces of influence • Contextual factors • Urgency • Importance • Individual vs. group Problem or Solution No Should convicted murderers be subject to death penalty? Current situation Desired Situation Objective Yes Problem Statement Current situation Desired Situation Objective Accountability Re-habilitation Once released they murder again Why Should convicted murderers be put to death? Crime prevention Example Religious Problem Solving Why should convicted murderers be subject to the death penalty? Rate of convicted murderers being released back into society and committing murder again is increasing. We need to determine how to prevent convicted murderers from killing again. Problem Identification & Formulation • Problem formulation – Forces of influence (cont.) • Personal attributes • Thinking styles • Stakeholders & their interests • Collective perception – Comparative methods Problem Identification & Formulation • Comparative methods –Tool examples • Financial reports • Process control charts Problem Identification & Formulation • Comparative methods (cont.) –Technique examples • Brainstorming • Affinity diagram • Fishbone diagram Problem Identification & Formulation • Problem statements –Formulate an effective problem statement –Clear, concise, measurable, & comprehensive Problem Identification & Formulation • Decision Making Tools and Techniques: Subjectivity vs. objectivity –Comparative methods Making The Decision Phase (4) 4. Identify Alternatives/Causes –Fishbone diagram –Pareto charts –Flow charts –Scatter diagrams –Statistical Process Control Chart Making The Decision Phase (5-7) 5. Framing Alternatives 6. Evaluating Impact of alternatives 7. Make the decision Forces of Influence • Broad –Physiology, psychology, sociology • Narrow –Gender, age, birth, order, culture, education, economic status, religion, etc. Forces of Influence a. b. c. d. e. f. Contextual factors Urgency Importance Biases Thinking styles Self-limiting choices. 1. 2. Bounded rationality. Paradigms. g. Stakeholders and their interests. h. Group dynamics factors. 1. 2. 3. Group-think. Group composition. Power. Forces of Influence • Broad – Physiology, psychology, sociology • Narrow – Gender, age, birth, order, culture, education, economic status, religion, etc. Optical Perception Optical Perception Optical Perception Optical Perception Decision Making Framework Information Characteristics Decision Structure Business Professionals Structured Semi Structured Un Structured Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation RELATIVE TIME SPAN Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Values Honesty Customers Employees Safety Competitors Revenue Profits Alliances New Products New Markets Ecology Cutting Edge Image Fun Growth Family Capital Quality Social Capital Location Hedonism Risk Collaboration Centralization Creativity Other Organizational Effectiveness ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE Other Teams Enthusiasm STRUCTURE Competition Reward System Accountability GOALS Reporting Relationships Values Clarity Collaboration Mission Philosophy Culture Commitment Stress Feedback System Flexibility Marketplace Decision Making Behavior Norm Involvement Pressures Trust Competition WS4: Key Concepts of Problem Based Learning • Evaluate information sources. • Apply the principles of generic benchmarking. • Describe how content in problem based learning (PBL) is applied to the scenario. • Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making WS5: Impact of Risk and Ethics on Decision Making • Assess the risk of alternative action. • Evaluate the probability and severity of risk factors. • Describe ways to mitigate risk. • Infer stakeholder values with limited information. WS6: Critical Analysis of Business Solutions • Develop measures (metrics) for performance evaluation, the success of implementation, and the attainment of end-state goals. ETHICS Common Denominator • • • • • • • • Krispy Kreme Doughnuts CocaCola Tyson Chicken KPMG Charity Companies Class Action Law Firm Milberg Weiss HealthSouth eToys caretaker CEO, Paul Traub of Taub, Bonacquist & Fox • Sony BMG • 124-Executive Tax Shelter • Harvard University, Andrei Shleifer, (economics professor), Jonathan Hay (attorney), Russian Aid $30M Decisions My BASIC principle is that you don't make decisions because they are easy; you don't make them because they are cheap; you don't make them because they're popular; you make them because they're right -- Theodore Hesburgh, C.S.C. Former President of Notre Dame Common Truth Everything we say and do represents a choice, & How we decide determines the shape of our lives. - Josephson Institute of Ethics Choices Good Prudence Bad Vice Self Benevolence Crime Others Choices Ethical A Legal B Legal C D Illegal ETHICS – NOT! • Religion; • Political stance; • Fad • Laws • Absolutes • Something that can only be understood by extremely intelligent people. ETHICS IS: • • • • • What we believe, why we believe it, and how we act out those beliefs; Personal & public display of personal attitudes and beliefs; Fluid through different situations; An aid in decision making; and According to Aristotle: a) A standard of behavior; & b) An area of study exploring the nature of morality. . Standard of Conduct Act with integrity – Protect the privacy and confidentiality of information – Do not misrepresent or withhold information – Do not misuse resources – Do not exploit weakness of systems – Set high standards – Advance the health and welfare of general public Ethics Decision Tree for CPAs CPA’s Taxes and Code of Ethics ETHICS - OBSTACLES • If It is Necessary, it is Ethical-justify-the-means reasoning • The False Necessity Trap - As Nietzsche put it, "Necessity is an interpretation, not a fact." • If It’s Legal and Permissible, It’s Proper-. Ethical people often choose to do less than the maximally allowable, and more than the minimally acceptable. • It’s Just Part of the Job- Fundamentally decent people feel justified doing things at work that they know to be wrong in other contexts. • It’s All for a Good Cause- is a seductive rationale that loosens interpretations of deception, concealment, conflicts of interest, favoritism and violations of established rules and procedures. ETHICS - OBSTACLES • It’s All for a Good Cause- is a seductive rationale that loosens interpretations of deception, concealment, conflicts of interest, favoritism and violations of established rules and procedures. • I Was Just Doing It for You -n"little white lies" or withholding important information in personal or professional relationships, such as performance reviews. • I’m Just Fighting Fire With Fire- This is the false assumption that promise-breaking, lying and other kinds of misconduct are justified if they are routinely engaged in by those with whom you are dealing. • It Doesn’t Hurt Anyone - Used to excuse misconduct, ETHICS - OBSTACLES • Everyone’s Doing It - This is a false, "safety in numbers" rationale fed by the tendency to uncritically treat cultural, organizational or occupational behaviors as if they were ethical norms, just because they are norms. • It’s OK If I Don’t Gain Personally - This justifies improper conduct done for others or for institutional purposes on the false assumption that personal gain is the only test of impropriety. • I’ve Got It Coming - People who feel they are overworked or underpaid rationalize that minor "perks" • I Can Still Be Objective - By definition, if you’ve lost your objectivity, you can’t see that you’ve lost your objectivity! Ethical Considerations- Principles – Proportionality: good must outweigh harm – Informed Consent: understand and accept risk – Justice: fair distribution – Minimized Risk: avoid unnecessary risk Ethical Considerations – 6 Pillars of Character 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Trustworthiness. Respect. Responsibility. Fairness. Caring. Citizenship. Ethics Decisions - Requirements Making ethical decisions requires the ability to make distinctions between competing choices. It requires training, in the home and beyond Ethics Decisions - Conclusion No one can simply read about ethics and become ethical. People have to make many decisions under economic, professional and social pressure. Rationalization and laziness are constant temptations. But making ethical decisions is worth it, if you want a better life and a better world. Keep in mind that whether for good or ill, change is always just a decision away. Ethical Considerations- Principles – Proportionality: good must outweigh harm – Informed Consent: understand and accept risk – Justice: fair distribution – Minimized Risk: avoid unnecessary risk Threshold of Pain Sound Pressure Level dBSPL Increased Pain 160 140 120 100 Hearing threshold of pain found in literature Pain recovery varies by individual TOB Activation Functions Unit Step Sigmoid Piecewise Linear Gaussian Identity f (x) = x Threshold of Belief The unexamined life is not worth living (Socrates). "[R]arely do we examine our lives to find out what kinds of answers are evidenced by our actions, hesitations, and indifferences and what ideas and mute beliefs we express about the individual and society, about our own lives, about our own freedom and responsibility." [Donald A. Hansen, An Invitation to Critical Sociology: Involvement, Criticism, Exploration 2 (New York: Free Press, 1976)] Threshold of Belief "Until we can understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselves." [Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966-1978 __ (New York: W.W. Norton, 1979)] The defenses that form a person's character support a grand illusion.... He is driven away from himself, from self-knowledge, self-reflection. He is driven toward things that support the lie of his character, his automatic equanimity." [Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death 56 (New York: Free Press, 1955)] Threshold of Belief "If individuals act automatically or conventionally, if they do only what is expected of them (or because they feel they have no right to speak for themselves), if they do only what they are told to do, they are not living moral lives." [Maxine Greene, Landscapes of Learning 49 (New York: Teachers College Press, 1979)] "As Jesus saw a man working on the Sabbath, he said to him: 'Man, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed. If you do not know, you are cursed and a transgressor of the law.'" [Erich Kahler, The Tower and the Abyss 191 (New York: Compass Books, 1967)(quoting the Bible, Luke 6:5)] Threshold of Belief "Many people only think in reaction to something and depend heavily on the dominant ideologies. This can sometimes be a way of protecting social status or privileges. That is how what Nietzsche called the morals of slaves are formed." [Gérard Fourez, Liberation Ethics 40 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982)] Threshold of Belief Belief Strength Decrease Belief Spiritual Space Increased Belief Physical Space Material Space The Marketing Concept Customer Satisfaction Profits Company Effort Effective Presentations Skills Experiential Presentations Presenting is a Skill… Developed through experience and training. Source: http://www.hplearningcenter.com #1 Fear • Feared More Than Death! • THE FACTS: Shaky hands, blushing cheeks, memory loss, nausea, and knocking knees • NORMAL! Causes • • • • • Fear of the Unknown OR Loss of Control Fight or Flight Mode No Backup Plan No Enthusiasm For Subject Focus of Attention Effective Presentation • • • • • • Control Anxiety – Don’t Fight It Audience Centered Accomplishes Objective Fun For Audience Fun For You Conducted Within Time Frame Objective 1. Inform 2. Persuade 3. Educate Planning a Presentation Planning 1. Determine Purpose 2. Assess Your Audience – “Success depends on your ability to reach your audience.” – Size – Demographics – Knowledge Level – Motivation Planning 3. Plan Space – Number of Seats – Seating Arrangement – Audio/Visual Equipment – Distracters 4. What Day and Time? – Any Day! – Morning ….and more Planning 5. Organization – Determine Main Points (2-5) – Evidence – Transitions – Prepare Outline Organizing Organizational Patterns • Topical • Chronological • Problem/Solution • Cause/Effect Outline • • • • Keyword Reminders Conversational Flow Flexibility More Responsive to Audience The Presentation Sequence #1: Build Rapport • … relation marked by harmony or affinity – Audience members who trust you and feel that you care • Start Before You Begin – Mingle; Learn Names – Opportunity to reinforce or correct audience assessment – Good First Impression • People Listen To People They Like #2: Opening Your Presentation • Introduce Yourself – Why Should They Listen • Get Attention, Build More Rapport, Introduce Topic – – – – – Humor Short Story Starling Statistic Make Audience Think Invite Participation • Get Audience Response #2…Completing the Opening • Clearly Defining Topic • If Informative… – Clear parameters for content within time • If Persuasive… – What’s the problem – Who cares – What’s the solution • Overview #3: Presenting Main Points (Solution) • Main Point-Transition-Main PointTransition-MainPoint….. • Supporting Evidence • Examples • Feedback & Questions From Audience • Attention to, and Focus on, Audience (Listening) #4: Concluding Your Presentation Goal • Inform audience that you’re about to close • Summarize main points • Something to remember or call-to-action • Answer questions “Tell ’em What You Told ‘em.” Effective Presentation Techniques Presentation Style 3 Elements 1. Vocal Techniques – – – – • Loudness Pitch Rate Pause Deviations From the Norm for Emphasis Presentation Style (con’t) 3 Elements 2. Body Language Eye Contact, Gestures, Posture 3. Use of Space Can Everyone See You? Movement Common Problems • Verbal fillers – “Um”, “uh”, “like” – Any unrelated word or phrase • • • • • Swaying, rocking, and pacing Hands in pockets Lip smacking Fidgeting Failure to be audience-centered Creating Effective Visual Aids Visual Aids • • • • Enhance Understanding Add Variety Support Claims Lasting Impact Used Poorly…A Distraction…Ineffective Presentation Visual Aids - Examples PowerPoint Slides Overhead Trans Graphs/Charts Pictures Films/Video Flip Charts Sketches Visual Aids Should… • • • • Supplement presentation Outline of main points Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s Simple and clear Main Point 1: The Purpose of Using Visual Aids • Visual aids support your ideas and improve audience comprehension of your presentation • Visual aids add variety to your presentation by giving the audience a break from listening and letting the see something • Visual aids help illustrate complex ideas or concepts and are helpful in reinforcing your ideas Visual Aids Improve comprehension Add variety Illustrate complex ideas Be Visible • Titles should be 38-44 pt. font size • Text should be 28 pt font size • Use color wisely – Contrasting colors Problem Definition • Narrow down what the problem is • What are the unknowns? • What are the data? • What are the conditions? • Can you satisfy the conditions? • Introduce a suitable notation • Separate the various parts of the conditions Design • Generate as many different ideas on how to solve the problem as possible • Have you seen the problem before in a different form? • Do you know of a related problem? Can you solve it? • Can you restate the problem? • Can you find a connection between the data and the unknown? Selection • Reduce the pool of ideas to one or two that will likely solve the problem:. Maximizing? Satisficing? • Does the plan cover all of the data? • Can the plan be implemented? • Is it effective? • Is it efficient? • Fallacies? Implementation • Carry out the plan one step at a time • Can you see that the step is correct? • Can you prove that it is correct? Evaluation • Can you check the results? • Can you derive the results differently? • Can you use the results or the method for some other problem?