egee012presentation

Report
Daniel Snyder
Yernur Suleimenov
Danny Torres
Kyle Tress
Nicholas Ward
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Global climate change, as it relates to CO2
emissions, is a large problem with respect to
the human lifestyle
Carbon dioxide emissions continue to
increase as time progresses due mostly to
combustion sources
Figure 1: CO2 concentration measured at the observatory
in Mauna Loa, Hawaii
Data source: NOAA (2012)
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Models analyzed: Ford Fusion, and Ford Fusion Hybrid
Preponderantly city driving
◦ Avg American city commuter travels 29 miles
◦ 29 mpg conventional car
◦ 47 mpg hybrid car equivalent
2,778 kWh/gas vehicle (Ford Corporations)
6 years (average time Americans owns a car)
Bituminous coal (American Coal Foundation)
◦ HHV = 13,000 BTU/lb
300,000 Ford conventional cars produced/year
14 lb CO2/gal of gas
40% more energy to produce a hybrid than to produce a
conventional gasoline car
Regenerative braking recovers 15% of the power
For simplicity, only power plant manufacturing and exhaust
gases from just cars were taken into account
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Energy Used to produce 1 gas car = 2,778
kWh/vehicle = 9,478,942 Btu/vehicle
29 mi/day * 365 day/year * 14 lb/gal / (22
mi/gal) * 300,000 cars/year / (2.2 lb/kg) =
916,420,432 kg C/year
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Given the ultimate analysis on dry ash-free basis of
bituminous coal (most common coal in the US):
◦ 0.828 lb C/lb coal * 729.15 lb coal/gas vehicle / (12 lb C/lbmol)
= 50.31 lb-moles C/gas car = 50.31 lb-moles CO2/gas car
◦ 50.31 lbmol C/gas car * 12 lb/lbmol * .4535 kg/lb = 273.8 kg
C/gas car
◦ 273.8 kg C/car * 300,000 car/year = 82,138,237.12 kg C/year
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Total Carbon (including Driving & Regenerative Brakes):
◦ (82138237.12 + 916420432 kg C/year)/1000 kg/ton =
998,558.7 total metric tons C/year
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Energy required for hybrid vehicle = 3889.2
kWh/year
13,270,518 BTU/car
3.65*10^8 kg C/year (driving)
70.44 lb-mol CO2/hybrid car
383.31 kg C/hybrid car
114,993,532 kg C/year (power plant)
479611.87 metric tons C/year
Carbon Saved by switching to hybrids =
518946.80 metric tons C/year
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MSRP values for each:
◦ Conventional: ~$23,700
◦ Hybrid: ~$27,200
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Additional Owner Costs
◦ Costs associated are based on average maintenance
over the 6-year average owning life span
Cost to Own your Ford Fusion for 5 years
(Initial cost of car+ cost of car per year)/(miles per year*
number of years)
($23,700+ $34,056)/(10,000 miles* 5 year)= $1.16 per
mile
Cost to Own your Ford Fusion for 5 years
(Initial cost of car+ cost of car per year)/(miles per year* number of years)
($27,200+ $37,176)/(10,000 miles* 5 year)=$1.28 per mile
• Ford Fusion SE
– Cost per mile average
• $1.16 per mile
– Miles per year
• 10,000 miles
– Number of year
• 6 years
– $1.16*10,000 miles* 6
years
• Ford Fusion Hybrid SE
– Cost per mile average
• $1.28 per mile
– Miles per year
• 10,000
– Number of year
• 6 years
– $1.28*10,000miles*6 years
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1 stab wedge = 1 billion tons C/year
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Ford Fusion SE
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Ford Fusion SE Hybrid
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Amount saved per year by using the Ford Fusion SE Hybrid over
the Ford Fusion SE
◦ 998,558,668.9 Kg C per Year for 300,000 cars
◦ 479,611,874 Kg C per year for 300,000 cars
◦ 998,558,668.9 Kg C – 479,611,874 Kg C = 518,946,794.9 Kg C saved
per year
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Stab wedge
◦ 1 billion tons in 1 wedge = 1,814,369,480,000 kg in 1 wedge
◦ 1,814,369,480,000 kg C / 518,946,794.9 Kg C per year
◦ = 3496.25 years to reduce one stab wedge
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Even though production energy for hybrid vehicles is
higher, the overall carbon emissions are lower than
conventional gas-powered cars.
Higher costs are associated with the hybrid car than
with the conventional gas car.
In order for hybrid technology to take root, the cars
ought to decrease in price while further promoting
environmental sustainability.
With respect to the stab wedge, switching to hybrid
isn’t the most feasible alternative despite advocating
environmentally friendly solutions.
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http://corporate.ford.com/doc/sr11.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermosillo_Stamping_%26_Assembly
http://www.foxbusiness.com/industries/2012/02/21/americans-arekeeping-their-cars-longer-study-shows/
http://www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey/daily
_travel.html
http://www.ket.org/trips/coal/agsmm/agsmmtypes.html
http://www.stewartmarion.com/carbon-footprint/html/carbonfootprint-car.html
http://www.ford.com/cars/fusion/
http://coalgeology.com/coal-classification-and-analysis-coal-rankclassification-by-heat-value/8603/
http://autos.yahoo.com/ford/fusion/2012/se/cost.html;_ylt=AkJ_O_aX
ypnCF7WhDQnJ_1TWYN1_;_ylv=3?zip&drive-mile=10&driveyear=A#yat-tco-summary
http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060408/news_lz1dd8takes.h
tml

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