Presentation for Building TCU, EPA & Tribal Partnerships

Report
Presentation for
TCUP Meeting
San Antonio, Tx.
Jan 3, 2014
Culturally Based Research
Topics:
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Introduction : Dr. Kerry E. Hartman
College and Tribe Information
ND Tribal Colleges Research Model
College/TAT Research Collaborations
Research Projects
Question/Discussion
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MHA Nation - Mandan, Hidatsa and
Arikara Nations
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http://www.mhanation.com
Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara Nation:
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College Information
Fort Berthold Community
College Home Page
http://www.fortbertholdcc.ed
u
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Rural Water/ Groundwater Quality
Lead Presence in Drinking Water
Radon Presence in Households
Pesticides in Tributaries
Cultural Site Monitoring
Invasive Species & Biocontrol
Mercury in Fish
Deer Population and Health
Contents of Oil Flares
Oil Development Surface Impact
Fracking and Groundwater
Where Elders Rest
College/TAT Research Collaborations
(More on these later)
Tribal College Faculty Research Model - ND
EPSCoR
 www.ndepscor.nodak.edu/.../NDTribalCollegeF
acultyResearchModel_
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Review
and Share
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Discussion
Tribal College Research Model
Model
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ND EPSCoR Funded
Undergrad. Research, Sunday Academy,
and Summer Science Culture Camp
Community Driven and Focused
Participatory: Students, Elders, TAT,
Student’s Choice of Subject
Qualitative and Quantitative
Student Collaborations
Mentoring TCC and UND/NDSU
Undergraduate Research
Cultural:
Requested by Elders during Talking Circle
Dissertation: Re-Establish!
Topics/Projects:
 Transplant Success Variables
 Weed Control
 Propagation Methods
 Cultivars
 Nutrient Analysis
 Next: Pollinators and Pests
Juneberry Project
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Cultural:
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Collaboration with TAT, C.of E.
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Classes
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GPS and GIS
Cultural Site Monitoring
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TOTALLY CULTURAL!
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Next Slide is Poster
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Interviewed Grandfather Got approval
T. White Hat Grady
Yarrow
Abstract:
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Extracts from Achillea millefolium have been used for centuries as topical healing agents for wounds,
burns, abrasions and other medical problems. How did our ancestors come to this knowledge and apply it to
their daily lives?
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Throughout history herbal extracts have been used as a part of Traditional Lakota Medicine, as well as
other Indigenous Cultures for centuries.
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The purpose of this research was to substantiate Achillea millefolium as an antimicrobial agent.
Preliminary indicators have shown to exhibit activity against a broad range of Gram+ and Gram- bacteria.
In combination with various other herbal plants, anti-microbial and anti-fungal growth were inhibited.
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Achillea Millefolium
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Common name: Yarrow Flower
It is shown to have many uses, it can be used to stop or infuse bleeding, and astringents just to
name a few.
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Medicinal elements of herbals were applied & often used to heal ailments such as stuffy/runny noses,
headaches, toothaches, stiff joints and the emergent crisis's such as infections, bleeding of wounds, even
easing the labor and delivery process during birth.
The Yarrow Flower contains:
Isovaleric acid – Fatty acid; aids in cell repair.
Salicylic acid – Pain relief (aspirin).
Asparagine – Nervous System necessity to maintain equillibrium
Sterols – Cell repair, aids in blood clotting process.
Flavonoids – Anti-Oxidant, protects against microbial invasion.
Tannins – Astringent, anti inflammatory agent
Coumarins- Anti-Coagulant
•
Gram + bacteria Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus also exhibited antimicrobial
activity against 1 or more strains
•
Parts of the yarrow were used individually, stems, leaves, flowers & root. The ground
dry poultice seemed the most effective in suppressing the growth of bacteria.
•
Determining Place
Exploration
Hante canhlogan
Achillea Millefolium
Western Yarrow
Causality
Approach/ Method
Analyzing the Data
Action
Discussion
Results
Gram - bacteria Pseudomonas Aeruginosa & Escherichia coli, were shown to have antimicrobial growth inhibition.
Inquiry
Sharing
Herbalists often work from the premise that a combination of plants can be more beneficial than when used
alone. Which ones and how did our ancestors know what worked best for what affliction. The application of
plant extracts for medical use can be traced back more than 2000 years
•
Methods:
Native Paradigm of Scientific Methods
Characterization of
Anti-Microbial Activity of
Achillea millefolium
Tamara White Hat-Grady
Under the Supervision of Professors Kerry Hartman & Dr. Kathy Kraft
Ft. Berthold Community College/Tribal College University Program
The infusion of the whole Yarrow plant was used as a wash and seemed the most
effective anti-microbial with a combination of cinnamon and clove
Literature cited.
•
•
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“Top herbs and supplements for wound healing and post surgical care” Available at
http://www.newtarget
“Native Tech: Native American Technology and Art” Available at http://www.Nativetech.com
“Phases of Wound Healing” Available at http://www.medicaledu.com/phases
Boyd D. Rolling Thunder: A Personal Exploration into the Secret Healing Powers of an
American Indian Medicine Man. New York, NY Random House, 1974
“School of Natural Healing” Dr. John R Christopher; Christopher Publishing 13 th Printing
Feb.2001
What do Gram-Negative bacteria cause?
Gram-Negative bacteria infection leads to endotoxemia in which the endotoxin (a toxic
substance associated with bacteria cell wall or core) come in contact with blood streams,
once the endotoxin is mixed in blood, the substance can reach any part of the body and
start harm to the tissues. The body immune system releases inflammatory substance in the
body and causes the body temperature to rise (mild fever). If the presence of endotoxin
inside the body is below a normal level our immune system can fight back, but if the level
of endotoxin is higher than the normal, the infection can be life-threatening in extreme
cases; the spread of endotoxin inside the host body and inflammatory reaction by the
immune system is called endotoxic shock.
Our ancestors used these plants as healing agents in the past, before micro-scopes, before
petri dishes, disc diffusion methods, and two fold agar dilution methods. They mastered
the use of plants. Some of these practices are still very common today and are often used
in our ceremonial Sundances, and Sweat Lodge healings.
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Newest Cultural:
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Requested by Elders
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GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing
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…evolving
Where The Elders Rest
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Following Posters:
Cultural AND TCUP or collaboration
N. Scott
N. Seg. CEO
Liz B.
TAT Chair Office
Destiny B. TAT Game and Fish
Tanya D
FBCC Faculty
Ron C.
Petrol. Company Env. Div.
Jolene L. Law School App.
TCUP Graduates
Methane Oxidation:
Methanotrophic
Bacteria’s Response to
Methane Addition in a
Northern Temperate
Lake
BIOS 35502: Practicum in Environmental Field Biology
Noel S. Baker
Advisor: William West
2012
Destiny Baker
Midi Agu Adesh (Appears on the Water)
Fort Berthold Community College
Dr. Kerry Hartman
Investigation of Sources of Metal Contamination on the Turtle
Mountain Chippewa Reservation
H. LaRocque, E. Bluestone, A. LaVallie (faculty); Turtle Mountain Community College
.
Standards
curves for the atomic absorption spectrometer
were calculated as known concentration of analyte in
solution versus absorption level readout on the
spectrometer. Ni, Cr and Ag curves were linear up to
5 ppm, while Cd and Pb curves were linear up to 2 and 15
ppm respectively.
Introduction
A grant through the ATSDR/CDC provided funding
for investigation into soil metal contaminants in 2009
on the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation. NSF
REU funding in 2010 allowed further investigation of
the same sites where contaminant dumping was
suspected.
A further dimension was added in that Pb
contamination of local sloughs was a possibility
when leech researchers at TMCC found that lead
weights had been used by private trappers for 25 or
more years on hundreds of leech traps in several
sloughs.
Students resampled close to the 2009 sample sites
on the local landfill, a new high school reportedly
built over an ol d landfill, an illegal dump, a
destroyed housing area and a manufacturing plant.
Evaluation of contamination by Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Ag
and Fe was accomplished via microwave digestion
and atomic absorption spectrometry.
Students collected samples and recorded site locations
with Garmin eTrex Legend HCx GPS units and later plotted
the sites on GIS maps.
The control samples were crushed mildly with mortar and
pestle, only to loosen all granules, and then baked in a
110 C oven for about one hour. Dried samples of 0.5 g
were digested with HCl, HNO3 and H202 in the hood
overnight and then transferred to Teflon reaction vessles,
which were then installed into a Milestone Ethos model
microwave. Vessels were subjected to a program which
ramped from room temperature to 180 C for 5.5 minutes,
maintained at 180 C for another 4.4 minutes and then
allowed to cool.
The entire solution sample was removed from each reaction
vessel and was diluted with distilled water to produce 100
ml of sample with a 5% HNO3 background. Lanthanum
suppressant was added to each sample.
Stock standards from Buck Scientific were used to prepare
instrumental standards for Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr and Ag.
Laboratory prepared standards for Fe were provided.
20
0Pb…
0y…
0.5
abso…
Ni…
Ni…
Methodology
10
0
Soil field samples contained the following average
analyte concentrations:
detection limit(ppm)
0.6
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
Pb
Cd
Soil conc. (ppm)
Soil conc. (ppm)
2009 range
2010 range
50- 198
0 - 204
7- 14
24 – 50
abso
Ni
The detection limits for the metal analytes were estimated
at three times the standard deviation for several baseline
readings (instrument wavelength and flame type are also
listed):
Analyte
Pb
Cd
Ni
Cr
Ag
Interestingly, Pb levels were higher in some areas of
known leeching (BIA 7 sloughs), but relatively low in
others (N Jarvis Lake).
Sample
Pb…
Abstract
Funded by an NSF undergraduate research grant (REU), tribal college
students from Turtle Mountain Community College and Fort Berthold
Community College investigated metal contamination sources on the
Turtle Mountain Chippewa Reservation . The sources of possible
contamination included two separate media- open soil and wetland
sediments.
Open soil sites had been previously tested in a 2009 CDC study and
further samples were sought for corroborative purposes. These sites
included the landfill and adjacent sites, two former dumps, a
destroyed public housing site, an illegal dump and a local
manufacturing plant; the latter location had previously shown high
nickel and iron quantities.
Wetland sediments were tested primarily for lead contamination
when Dr. Debra Hunter, a leech research project investigator at
TMCC, found that extensive leeching with leech traps weighted with
lead weights had been ongoing for years in numerous sloughs on the
reservation. Students recorded all sample locations (latitude and
longitude) with Garmin eTrex Legend HCx GPS units and later plotted
the sites on GIS maps.
Samples were crushed mildly if needed, and baked at 110 C for 30
minutes for thorough drying. Samples were digested first by acid
and peroxide treatment in the hood and then further digested in an
Ethos Milestone microwave by ramping to 180 C over 5.5 minutes
and maintained at this temperature for another 4.4 minutes.
Samples were diluted to a specified volume by %5 HNO3 with a small
percentage of lanthanum suppressant present.
Standards curves for Pb, Ni, Cr, Ag, Cd and Fe were calculated for a
Buck 200A atomic absorption spectrometer, and field samples were
then evaluated for these metals. Results showed that Pb, Ag, and Cd
were not high (above limit of detection) in any open soil samples,
according to EPA soil screening generic levels for ingestion.
However, several Cd and Cr samples were over the EPA generic soil
screening levels for groundwater; however, absolute comparison
could not be done without doing a soil evaluation.
Slough sediment lead levels were determined to be under the EPA
generic soil screening limit of
400 ppm in all samples, although lead was elevated in some sloughs
compared to others, suggesting some additions to various bodies of
water by some source, possibly leeching.
g (nm)
flame type
217.0
oxidizing
228.8
oxidizing
232.0
oxidizing
357.9
reducing
328.1
oxidizing
High Fe, even43at 58,000
Cr
1016 ppm, translated to 6%, well
within
normal 0soil32levels. A level of 940 ppm NI was
Ag
displayed at MC site 7 in 2009
21 -and
35 2010 Ni tests at
1 ft, 2 ft and 3 ft to the east of
same site showed 0 - 3600
Fe
0 –the
58700
Ni levels of 18 to 71 ppm, perhaps indicating a very
small, localized problem. The generic soil screening
level for Ni is 400 ppm for residential areas; Ni can be
problematic in high acid areas or if industrial areas
become residential.
Results /Conclusions
Slough and lake edge sediments yielded the following
average evels of analyte in ppm:
Sample Area
Pb
Ni
Cr
Cd
Ag
N. Jarvis Lake
N. Jarvis slough
Gordon L slough
Wheaton Lake
BIA 7 slough east
BIA 7 slough west
S. Jarvis Lake
N. Belcourt Lake
41
61
56
39
122
104
103
109
67
55
39
21
12
73
-
121
128
59
14
46
110
-
21
30
19
23
23
23
26
27
16
31
28
31
36
34
30
36
EPA generic soil screening levels (to be used as
guidelines; actual limits must be based on soil conditions):
Metal
Pb
Cd
Ni
Cr
Ag
Fe
ingestion
groundwater
limit (ppm)
limit (ppm)
400
78
8
1600
130
390
38
390
34
(can occur naturally in soils up to 20%)
Slough sediment samples did not exceed any EPA
generic soil screening levels for ingestion for any of the
evaluated metals, including lead. Since slough material
was essentially in contact with ground water, it was noted
that generic soil levels had been exceeded for Cd, Cr and
Ag in terms of groundwater risk due to leaching.
0- 940
0 – 71
43
The MC study area sites located by GPS and transferred to GIS maps.
References
A&L Eastern Laboratories, Inc. “Interpreting Soil Heavy Metals;”
retrieved March 2009 from
http://al_labs_eastern.com/forms/HeavyMetals/
Day, Robert W (2000). Soil-Testing Manual (1st Ed.) McGraw-Hill.
EPA method 7000b: Analysis of Metals in Solution by Flame Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometry (2009). Retrieved April 2009 from
http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/testmethods/sw846/
Jury, William and Horton, Robert (2004). Soil Physics (6th Ed.). Wiley.
Liu, David and Liptak, Bela (1999). Groundwater and Surface Water
Pollution (1st Ed.). CRC Press.
NIOSH method “Lead by FAAS;” Retrieved March 2009 from
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/method-8000.html
Soil series maps for Rolette County, N.D. Retrieved Nov. 2008 from:
http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/WebSoilSurvey.aspx
Sumner, M, (editor, 1999). Handbook of Soil Science (1st Ed.). CRC
Press.
USEPA Generic SSLs (1996); retrieved March 2009 from Table A- 1
http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/
USEPA Regional Screening Levels (2009); retrieved March 2009 from
http://www.epa.gov/region09/superfund/prg/files/
Jolene Lockwood
Nueta, Hidatsa, Sahnish College
NAPIRE 2012
Abstract
• Members of the deer family are occasionally diagnosed
with conditions commonly called bumps or lumps. The
purpose of this research was to study the virus,
Papillomas, which is the causative agent of this disorder.
• Further study investigated the presence of this disorder
on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation.
• The research utilized secondary and primary data to
include journal reports, personal interviews of federal ,
state and tribal wildlife personal (to determine
incidents/prevalence).
• The results indicated that the disorder is endemic to the
deer family and is rarely fatal, and rarely seen by
humans.
**
Introduction….
Introduction
• The members of the deer family are occasionally
diagnosed with conditions commonly called bumps or
lumps. The causative agent of this disease has been
determined to be the, Papillomas Virus.
• This disorder can be identified by variable sizes ranging
from 1-2 mm per size *, to huge 8-10 cm **.
• The colorations are of light to dark, a texture of gray to
black.
• The appearance is that of a cauliflower-like growth.
*
• The Scientific name is , Deer papillomavirus. Common
name, DPV. Synonym, Deer fibroma virus.
• The host of this virus are mainly the mule and whitetailed deer species.
• Over 800 Deer licenses where sold on the Fort Berthold
Reservation.
• Other animals affected are moose, elk, and caribou
The Papilloma Virus in Deer on the
Fort Berthold Indian Reservation
Ron Craig
Kathy Kraft, Kerry Hartman; Faculty
Advisors
Fort Berthold Community College
Methods
• This research utilized secondary and primary data.
• Extensive research was conducted using journal reports.
• Personal interviews with federal, state, and tribal wildlife
personal in order to determine a incidence number and
the prevalence.
Results
• 3-5% nationally are affected, 1-10,000 will have
problems from the virus. The disorder is endemic to the
deer family and is rarely fatal or seen by humans.
• Once infected, the life cycle of this has been seen to last
weeks to months, 75%-80% regression, leaving the deer
immune to future infections.
• The virus is worldwide and comes from the
Papivaviridae family which also infects humans, felines
and bovines.
• The journal articles indicated that the reservoir and
transmission routes of this virus is not fully understood.
Discussion
• The isolated incident that was found by the Tribal
Game & Fish was noted as not being a big concern,
only that it looked bad.
• This was the second case reported to the Tribe in ten
years.
• Better research needs to be done on Deer papilloma
virus.
• This study has contributed to increased awareness
and understanding about the Deer Papilloma virus on
Fort Berthold.
t
.
Abstrac
The Fort Berthold Indian
Reservation is centered in the
middle of the Bakken formation.
According to the U.S. Geological
Survey’s assessment (April
2008), the Bakken Formation is
the largest ‘continuous’ oil
accumulation the agency has
ever assessed and is larger than
all other current USGS in the
lower 48. It is estimated that
new horizontal drilling techniques
may allow up to 4.3 billion
barrels of oil to be recovered
from the 10k ft deep Bakken.
This technique is called hydraulic
fracturing (fracking). Fracking is
used to create fractures that
extend from the well bore into
rock or coal formations. These
fractures allow the oil or gas to
travel more easily from the rock
pores, where the oil or gas is
trapped, to the proppants (sand
or ceramic beads) and chemicals
is pumped into the rock or coal
formation.
References/Acknowledgements
•U.S. EPA. June, 2004. p. a1-4
•I.D. Palmer, S.W. Lambert and J.L.
Spitler. 1993. “Coalbed methane well
completions and stimulations”. AAPG
Studies in Geology 38. Chapter 14, pp.
303-341.
•U.S. EPA. August, 2002. p. 6-8.
Introduction
We plan to sample water wells over
the course of 5 years. There will be
a collection of samples from over
900 rural wells on the Fort Berthold
Indian Reservation. Our samples
will be pretested for presence of
toxins and contaminants.
Investigation of Fracking
Fluids in Groundwater
Wells on Fort Berthold
Reservation
Kristen Mason
Dr. Kerry Hartman
Fort Berthold Community College
Sampling will begin by accumulating
our target water wells throughout
the reservation. This will be done
by using maps from local tribal
entities. Home visits will also be
dependent on acquiring testing
sites. We will take 5 samples from
each from each segment or district.
Methodology
.
We have targeted 30 wells for our
initial sampling set, but hope to do
over 100. The project is expected
to last through the summer of 2014
Sampling will be according to
EPA’s QAPP guidelines. This is
the same procedure being
implemented by the Killdeer Aquifer
doing the same type testing of there
Discussion
groundwater.
I believe that our study will fail to
detect any compounds in the
groundwater related to oil
development and fracking.
Impacts of Oil Development on Land Cover of the Fort
Berthold Indian Reservation
Tanya Driver
Dr. Kerry Hartman
Fort Berthold Community College
Abstract
The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation
(FBIR) is located at the center of the
area currently being overrun by the
development of the Bakken oil reserve.
The number of oil wells in North Dakota
has doubled from 3,200 to 6,400 in the
last 5 years, with 90% of the new wells
being in the Bakken field. This explosion
of development has caused widespread
destruction of thousands of acres of
land. The purpose of this study was to
quantify the disturbance of native
grasslands impacted by the ongoing oil
development on the FBIR. The
remaining native grasslands were
emphasized due to the cultural
relevance of this pristine vegetation.
GPS, GIS, and Remote Sensing were
Introduction
utilized for locating, mapping, and
determining area of oil well pad sites in
Oil development has a substantial effect
a sample area from (2008) to the
on the land on and surrounding the
(2011).
Bakken and Three Forks Oil Reserves.
The amount of land used for oil
development has drastically increased in
the last several years and the full effect
on the environment is unknown. Using
ASTER images and EROS
methodologies to monitor and quantify the
land cover disruption caused by the
development
of oil.
References/Acknowledgements
.
•North Dakota Oil and Gas Division
•USGS EROS- Dr. Eric Wood
•NDATC-GCCE
•NASA- ND Space Grant Consortium
Methods
Data exploration consisted of satellite
and aerial map images ASTER
(advanced spaceborne thermal
emission and reflection radiometer
), Landsat (land remote-sensing
satellite (system ), and NAIP
(national agricultural imagery
program). GPS, GIS, and Remote
Sensing were utilized for locating,
mapping, and determining area of oil
well pad sites. Arcview 9.3.1
mapping software was used in
conjunction of images and digitzing.
Up to date oil and gas data was
acquired from the North Dakota
Industrial Commission (NDIC).
Database files were filtered according
to the following status:
status had to
be “active”
well type had
to be “oil and
gas”
Land Cover spud date
had to be
listed
Fort Berthold Indian Reservation
We
then
generated
Consists Of 980,000 Acresdatabase
and
spreadsheets
two years prior
contains
counties of Mountrail,
to 2008 and
four
years after.
Dunn, McKenzie,
and
McLean.
Each
year
was
seperated
Land cover on east side of Lake as
a dbase
file into arcview
and
Sakakawea
is Agriculture
containing
mapped
accordingly.
approximately 460,800 acres. On
the west side of Lake Sakakawea
there is 368, 640 acres of rangeland
utilized for ranching.
2006 Imagery of Fort Berthold Well
Locations
Chart of Growth
Digitizing and Ground Truthing
2011 Imagery of Fort Berthold Well
Locations
Ground Truthed Site
.
In the past the industry in
cooperation with the Forest Service
has reclaimed more than 700 wells
and 280 miles of roads in the
National Grasslands. This
represents 5,300 acres returned to
vegetation. Currently, there are
more than 17% of North Dakota’s
producing wells located on
grasslands. (North Dakota
Petroleum Council, 2010)
Results
Due to the pristine condiition of
grasslands located west of Lake
Sakakawea our sample area
encopmassed 6 townships
totalling 138,240 acres and
containing 100 producing wells.
That turns out to be 757 acres
of disturbance. This area will be
holding more wells in 2012.

Questions????

Discussion.
The End

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