Ch. 9 Guided Reading Answers muckrakers Ida Tarbell – History of the Standard Oil Company Upton Sinclair – The Jungle WCTU Eugene V. Debs Prohibition Socialist Party of America Carrie Nation Creating Economic Reform Promoting Moral Improvement Scientific management Progressive Reforms Frederick W. Taylor Promoting Social Welfare Creating Political Reform Florence Kelley Reformers Mayors Hazen Pingree-Detroit Tom Johnson - Cleveland Governors Robert M. LaFollette - Wisconsin Hiram Johnson – California James Hogg- Texas Illinois Factory Act 1893 YMCA, Salvation Army, It established a variety of public institutions settlement houses, Florence such as parks, settlement house, passage of the Illinois Factory Act. Kelley. Women’s Christian Temperance involved the adoption of prohibition Union, Frances Willard, and the by many towns and state Anti-Saloon League. governments. Eugene V. Debs, the American public exposure of corruption. Socialist Movement and muckrakers such as Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair. Frederick W. Taylor, Henry Ford, and Ford Motor. National Child Labor Committee; Louis Brandies; Florence Kelley; Josephine Goldman Mayors Hazen Pingree, Tom Johnson : wide spread adoption of the theory of scientific management, the Ford assembly line, and the “Five Dollar Day”. Keating-Owen Act; state child labor laws; Muller v. Oregon; Bunting v. Oregon; workers compensation law Adoption of the commission system and city-manager forms of government and property tax reforms. Wisconsin laws that managed to Robert M La Follette, Charles B. Aycock, James regulate the railroads Hogg Williams S. U’Ren Widespread adoption of the secret ballot, initiative, referendum, recall, and direct primary and passage of the 17th Amendment. Agricultural; domestic; manufacturing White collar jobs Agricultural; domestic; Agricultural; domestic; piecework; taking in boarders; manufacturing New women’s college’s established Marriage was no longer a woman’s only alternative; offered opportunities to pursue a profession; offered opportunities to devote oneself to volunteer work and reform movement Tried to convince state Legislatures to grant women The right to vote Pursued court cases to test the Fourteenth Amendment Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho granted women the right to vote; efforts failed in other states failed The Supreme Court ruled that women were citizens, but that citizenship did not automatically confer the right to vote Campaigned for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote PROBLEM What steps did Roosevelt take to solve each problem? Which legislation helped solve the problem? Roosevelt : Called both sides to the White House to negotiate; threatened to take over the mines None. Roosevelt: Filed suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act against many trusts. Sherman Antitrust Act Roosevelt: Urged Congress to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Act; fought for passage of the Elkins Act and Hepburn Act Interstate Commerce Act , Elkins Act and Hepburn Act Roosevelt: Appointed a commission to study the meatpacking industry; pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act. Meat Inspection Act; Pure Food and Drug Act Roosevelt: Promoted conservation of natural resources; set aside thousand of acres of forest reserves, waterpower sites, wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks. Named a conservative to the head of the U.S. Forest Service Roosevelt: None or appointed an African American as head of Charleston, South Carolina customhouse; refused to dismiss an African American postmistress in Mississippi; invited Booker T. Washington to dinner Legislation: National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) Legislation: None Progressives Conservatives Progressives: Opposed Taft because he had signed and defended the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, seemed to oppose conservation, and supported conservative boss Joseph Cannon Conservatives: Supported Taft because they opposed progressivism, Roosevelt, and low tariffs and because they favored big business. Progressives: Progressive or Bull Moose Party Conservatives: Republican Party Progressive Party Republican Party Theodore Roosevelt William Howard Taft Supported government action to supervise big business, but did not oppose all big business monopolies. Favored big business, but worked to break up monopolies Democratic Party Socialist Party Woodrow Wilson Eugene V. Debs Supported small business and free market competition Felt that big business was evil and that the solution involved doing away with capitalism and distributing wealth. What were the aims of each piece of legislation or constitutional amendment? Set up the Federal Trade Commission with the power to investigate corporations and unfair business practices. Strengthened the Sherman Anti Trust Act: Freed labor unions and farm organizations from antitrust laws; prohibited most injunctions against strikers Substantially reduced tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War Legalized a federal income tax Established the Federal Reserve System, a decentralized private banking system under federal control Increased activism of local and grass roots groups; the use of new strategies to build enthusiasm; regeneration of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt 19th Amendment Opposed federal anti lynching legislation; appointed segregationists to his cabinet; failed to oppose the resegregation of federal offices.