Numeryczne aspekty tomografii optycznej

Report
Proposals of research topics that
may be conducted in
Electrotechnical Institute
Jan Sikora, Tomasz Grzywacz, Alicja Idziaszek-Gonzalez
[email protected]
Outline of the presentation
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Electrical energy storage - applications
and technology
Fuel cells
Renewable energy
Electric vechicles
Modelling and simulation
Electrical energy storage
Superconducting magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
SMES technology relies on storing energy of direct current
in a magnetic field produced by a superconducting coil.
Solenoid or toroid coils take advantage of the
superconducting characteristics of low-temperature
materials to produce intense magnetic fields to store
energy.
Main advantages of SMES:
• Electrical power is available instantaneously,
• No power dissipation,
• No moving parts.
Superconducting magnetic energy storage system
supplies electricity in case of sudden drops in
voltage from lightning strikes and other natural
phenomena (Kameyama Manufacturing, Japan)
Electrical energy storage
Supercapacitors Energy Storage System (SCESS)
Supercapacitors are the devices which can store significant
amounts of energy and are able to release it quickly. The
amount of energy stored is very large compared to a standard
capacitor because of the enormous surface area created by
the porous carbon electrodes and the small charge separation
(10 angstroms) created by the dielectric separator.
Main advantages of SCESS:
• Virtually unlimited life cycle – can be recharged millions of
time,
• Low impedance – enhances load handling when put in
parallel with a battery,
• Rapid charging.
Maxwell Technologies Ultracapacitors
Fuel Cells
There are five main fuel cell technologies classifying according to types of
electrolyte. Currently, significant interests are focused on Proton Exchange
Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) made of ion conducting polymers and high
temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) containing solid oxide ceramics as the
electrolyte. PEMFCs are intended for mobile applications. SOFCs are first of all
designed for environmentally friendly thermal power stations.
The higher efficiency, longer time of operations and
lower production costs for PEMFC and SOFC are
main issues of research for Energy Sources
Research Section in Electrotechnical Institute. The
scientists are focused on the development of the
new technologies for particular parts of fuel cells,
inventions of the new electrolyte and electrode
materials and implementations of fuel cell stacks in
various stationary and mobile applications.
Schematic of the hydrogen fuel cell
(source: http://hotcellularphone.com)
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are
replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the
sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the
definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean,
hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen
derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy replaces
conventional fuels in distinct areas e.g.: power generation, hot water /
space heating.
The fundamental aims of our research are
focused on power electronics for power
control and conversion systems as well as
designing requirements for small renewable
energy systems. Another areas of interest
involve sub-assemblies for renewable energy
power stations, e.g.: induction generators
and measurement systems.
Picture taken from:
www.greengop.org/tag/renewable-energy
Electric Vehicles
Electric vehicles can significantly reduce city pollution by their zero-emission
drive.
Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel
energy to move the vehicle or to power accessories while electric drive
vehicles have on-board efficiency of around 80%. Electric drives are
mechanically very simple and provide quiet and smooth operation and have
less noise and vibration than internal combustion engines.
The scope of our research involves:
• electric drive systems especially in-wheel
motors,
• controllers for power distribution and
steering,
• charging systems,
• municipal infrastructure for charging
vehicles,
• communication and networking for
payment issues.
Elcar Golf G-1 vehicle
Modelling and Simulation
The area of our interest in field of modeling and simulation covers:
• optimal requirements design for small renewable energy systems,
• modeling and simulation of power conversion systems,
• design of dynamic models of renewable energy systems,
• electical impedance tomography and optical tomography for imaging
of industrial processes e.g. flow of multiphase substances,
combustion,
• estimation of energy consumption,
• optimal deployment of e.g. wind turbines or tidal power stations for
better use of wind and tide energy respectively,
The logarithm of amplitude of photon
density on layers between four regions
of concentric sphere model (Diffuse
Optical Tomography)
Thank You for attention
Jan Sikora, Tomasz Grzywacz, Alicja Idziaszek-Gonzalez
[email protected]

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