LHC and astroparticle physics - Gruppo1

Report
1
LHC and astroparticle physics
~ connection to the air shower simulations ~
Sorry, not cover SUSY, mini BH, extra-dimension, QGP…
Takashi SAKO
(Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory,
Nagoya University, Japan)
for the LHCf Collaboration
XXth Rencontres de Blois, 22nd May 2008
2
Air shower experiments
Astrophysical parameters
- source type
- source distribution
- source spectrum
- source composition
- propagation
Air shower development
- interaction
- atmosphere Effect to Astrophysics
Constraint from LHC
Observations
- lateral distribution
- longitudinal distribution
- particle type
- arrival direction
Image from “The Daily Galaxy”
3
Berezinsky, ICRC 2007
AGASA X0.9
HiRes X1.2
Yakutsk X0.75 Auger X1.2 (not enough)
Systematics of AGASA
Total
±18%
Hadron interaction
(QGSJET, SIBYLL)
~10%
(Takeda et al., 2003)
4
Composition
(Auger)
Xmax favors heavy primary
Anisotropy favors
light primary
(if accept AGN
correlation)
5
Composition of Galactic CRs
(KASCADE)
QGSJET01
SIBYLL 2.1
6
Key measurements at accelerator
What accelerator experiments can do?

Key parameters
•
•
•
Total (inelastic) cross section
Elasticity / Inelasticity
Secondary distribution (E, PT, θ, η, XF)
Technique of the forward measurements
 Existing data (SppS, Tevatron, HERA,
RHIC)
 LHC experiments

7
Key measurements
E0
EM
shower
E leading hadron
Elasticity / inelasticity
Forward spectra
Cross section
8
Importance in forward emission
XF~E/E0
No cut
γ: XF<0.05
Pi,K: XF<0.1
XF>0.1 : very forward particles for simple
~50% is produced from very forward particles
9
How to access very forward
in the colliders?
Charged particles
Neutral particles
Beam pipe
Coverage of general purpose detector (ATLAS, CMS,…)
Special detectors to access forward particles are necessary
10
How to access very forward
in the colliders?
Surrounding the beam pipe with detectors
Simple way, but still miss very very forward particles
11
How to access very forward
in the colliders?
Install detectors inside the beam pipe
Challenging but ideal for charged particle
12
How to access very forward
in the colliders?
Y shape chamber enables us neutral measurements
Zero degree calorimeters
13
Expected measurements at LHC

TOTEM, ATLAS forward (ALFA)
[surrounding + approaching type]
• Absolute cross section

ZDC (ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, LHCf)
[neutral particle measurement except a part of
ALICE ZDC]
• Inelasticity and spectra measurements
14
The Large Hadron Collider
Collider of 7TeV proton + 7TeV proton
1017eV @ labo. System
Heavy ion collisions
CMS / TOTEM
ALICE
ATLAS / LHCf
LHCb
15
LHC energy @ 14TeV collision
Engel, Nuclear Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 151 (2006) 437-461
7TeV in 2009
5TeV in 2008
16
17
Energy flow
Transverse energy flow
Pseudo rapidity in LHC
LHCf
The CMS and TOTEM diffractive and forward physics working group
pseudorapidity:  = - ln (tan /2)
TOTEM
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Leading Protons detectors at
147,220m from the IP
T2
IP5
Ser
Fro
Patc
hP
ane
ls
vice
m
s ro
utin
Cas
g:
tor
to
Rac
ks
Leading Protons detectors at
147,220m from the IP
T2
T1
Telescopes
T1
T2
Patc
hP
T2
Serv
ic
From es rout
ing:
Cas
tor
to R
ac
ane
ls
ks
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TOTEM

Cross section measurement
20
Total cross section by TOTEM
1mb precision
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ZDC
(Zero Degree Calorimeter)

ATLAS ZDC, CMS ZDC, ALICE ZDC
Total energy flow, wide aperture, high energy
resolution for hadrons, (proton measurement
only by ALICE ZDC)

LHCf (dedicated for CR study)
Individual particle, imaging calorimeters, π0
reconstruction, particle ID
LHCf (ZDCs) Acceptance
XF
0.1
η> 8.4
η> 8.7
1.0
~10cmX10cm at 140m away
from collision point
(5cm/140m ~ 300 urad)
22
The LHCf experiment
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K.Fukui, Y.Itow, T.Mase, K.Masuda, Y.Matsubara, H.Menjo,
T.Sako, K.Taki, H.Watanabe
Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan
K.Yoshida
Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
K.Kasahara, M.Mizuishi, Y.Shimizu, S.Torii
Waseda University, Japan
T.Tamura
Kanagawa University, Japan
Y.Muraki
Konan University
M.Haguenauer
Ecole Polytechnique, France
W.C.Turner
LBNL, Berkeley, USA
O.Adriani, L.Bonechi, M.Bongi, R.D’Alessandro, M.Grandi,
P.Papini, S.Ricciarini, G.Castellini, A. Viciani
INFN, Univ. di Firenze, Italy
A.Tricomi
INFN, Univ. di Catania, Italy
J.Velasco, A.Faus
IFIC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UVEG, Spain
D.Macina, A-L.Perrot CERN, Switzerland
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Double Arm Detectors
Arm#1 Detector
20mmx20mm+40mmx40mm
4 XY SciFi+MAPMT
Arm#2 Detector
25mmx25mm+32mmx32mm
4 XY Silicon strip detectors
Double Arm Detectors
Arm#1 Detector
Arm#2 Detector
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Model dependence in LHCf
θ~ 0 radian
θ~ 270 μradian
Gamma-ray spectra expected in a 1000 sec operation of LHCf at
very low LHC luminosity(1029cm-2s-1)
26
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Neutron spectra
Energy spectra at detector front
Resolution included spectra
π0 spectra
Pi zero produced at collision can be
extracted by using gamma pair events
Powerful to eliminate beam-gas BG
QGSJETII
⇔ DPMJET3χ2= 106 (C.L. <10-6)
⇔ SIBYLL χ2= 83 (C.L. <10-6)
DPMJET3
⇔ SIBYLL χ2= 28 (C.L.= 0.024)
107events DOF = 17-2=15
28
29
Proton
New models
(PICCO, EPOS)
Drescher, Physical Review D77,
056003 (2008)
Neutron
Pi0
30
LPM effect
○ w/o LPM
■ w/ LPM
Transition curve of a1 TeV photon w/ and w/o LPM
to be measured by LHCf
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Detector in place
LHCf
Luminosity
Monitor (BRAN)
ATLAS ZDC
32
LHCf run schedule
900 GeV collision before rumping in 2008
 10 TeV run in 2008 during the LHC
commissioning (low luminosity)
 14 TeV run in 2009 during commissioning
 Dedicated run (crossing angle, etc)
 Ion collision run (A-A’, p-N, N-N, Fe-N) in
study

33
Summary





Compilation of the EAS data is affected by the
uncertainty of hadron interaction.
LHC experiments (TOTEM, ZDCs including
LHCf) will provide crucial data of hadron
interaction for CR study.
LHCf can clearly discriminate the existing and
new models.
LHC will start with 10TeV collisions in 2008 and
achieve 14TeV in 2009.
With LHC, Auger, TA (full scale started!) and new
physics models (eg. CGC), we can expect a
significant progress in CR study in coming years
Backup slides
Outline of this talk
Model dependence in the compilation of
air shower data
 Key measurements at accelerators
 Expected measurements at LHC
 LHCf
 Summary and future

Model dependence problems
Absolute energy

•
GZK (1020 eV)
Composition

•
•
•
GZK (1020 eV)
Transition from galactic to extragalactic
(1017-1018 eV)
Knee (1015-1016 eV)
Popular models and new models

•
•
QGSJET, DPMJET, SIBYLL
EPOS, PICCO
Highest Energy
Log (flux)
HiRes-1 mono
HiRes-2 mono
AGASA
Major systematics of AGASA
1019eV
1020eV
log(Energy)
Total
±18%
Hadron interaction
(QGSJET, SIBYLL)
~10%
(Takeda et al., 2003)
Recent Model
(with HiRes result)
Drescher, Dumitru and Strikman, PRL 94, 231801 (2005)
Accelerator data

Inelastic cross section
Tevatron;σinela @ √s =1800GeV = 72, 80 mb

E-PT distribution of secondary
SppS (UA5-P238, UA7),
HERA, RHIC
Charged: UA5 (dot)
P238(cross)
pseudorapidity:  = - ln (tan /2)
LHCf
Arm#1
Arm#2
Schematic Side View of
the CMS ZDC
EM pp
Lu
m
Had
PMTs
Space
for flow
upgrade
Lead/
plastic
Fiber
, o N
1.5cm tungsten plates
2mm
plates
Light
guide
74 cm
Drescher, Physical Review D77, 056003 (2008)
CMS/TOTEM
Hadron Interaction Models
QGSJET, DPMJET, SIBYLL have a
common root based on Gribov-Regge
theory
 Recent development in EPOS, PICCO
 Accelerator calibration points are
indispensable

Pseudo rapidity distribution at SppS
Charged: UA5 (dot)
P238(cross)
Neutral: UA7 (dot)
Xmax (g/cm2)
LHC energy @ 14TeV collision
Energy (eV)
LHC 7TeV

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