Slide 1

Report
Developments in the Black Sea
from an Industry Perspective
Istanbul Bilgi University, May 15, 2003
Captain Kjell Landin, Marine Representative
© ChevronTexaco 2002
Presentation Outline
1. Oil pollution sources and threats in context
2. The oil transportation picture
3. Reducing the risk: prevention and preparedness
a) Good Example & Results.
b) International & Industry Initiatives.
4. Example of Industry Initiative.
2
Black Sea;
Drain Basin for Large & Polluted Area
Drainage from 2 Milj Km2, 23 Countries
& approx. 160 Milj People.
3
Black Sea;
Many Ports - 30 For Liquid Cargoes
= Terminals with Vessel Quality Control
(Vetting & Clearance)
Azov
Novorossiysk
Batumi
Odessa
Berdyansk
Oktyabrskiy
Burgas
Poti
Caucasus
Reni
Constanta
Rostov
CPC*
Samara
Eregli
Saratov
Feodosia
Sevastopol
Ilichevsk
Supsa*
Kafkaz
Syzran
Kerch
Tuapse
Kherson
Varna
Mariupol
Volgograd
Midia
Yuzhny
4
Black Sea:
Estimated Oil Inputs
Accidental spills
Total
110,000 ton / year
River
Danube
Domestic Sewage
Systems
Land-based
Rivers (other)
Industry
e.g. coastal vessel operations
5
Source: BSEP Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis
Global Context;
Oil Release Estimates
Atmosphere
Aircraft
Total
1.3 M tonne / year
General shipping
operations
Non tanker
spills
Natural
seeps
Land-based
Marine terminals
Tanker operations
Tanker spills
Pipelines Exploration & Production
Source; US National Research Council
6
Black Sea;
Environmental Threats
 Eutrophication (excess nutrients–farming; P, N & C)
 Chemical pollution (toxic substances)
 Suspended matters pollution
 Solid wastes
 Oil spills
Source; UNEP-GIWA
Chronic oil pollution from sources not related to shipping (e.g.
rivers and domestic) are a major concern.
Operational discharges (sometimes illegal) are the major
sources of pollution from shipping – oil & indigenous species.
Operational Discharge; lack of reception facilities & enforcement
Modern Oil tankers not a source of operational discharges.
A maritime incident could lead to accidental spill.
7
Black Sea;
Oil Transport Volumes 2002
All Figures in
Million Ton [MTA]
53.9
FSU refined
products
Kazakhstan
26.7
33.9
Ukraine
Russian
Federation
Romania
11.9
Bulgaria
120
10.4
6.5
33.9
45.8
Black Sea
5.0
12.2 6.8
3.6
Caspian
Turkmenistan
Georgia
<2
9.7
Azerbaijan
Turkey
Year: 2002
1.9
IR Iran
Data source: CERA
8
Black Sea;
Oil Transport Volumes 2010
All Figures in
Million Ton [MTA]
71.9
FSU refined
products
Kazakhstan
59.3
Ukraine
21.2
Russian
Federation
Romania
7.5
0.9
21.2
19.1
57.0
Black Sea
Bulgaria
5.0
52.0
134
Caspian
Turkmenistan
Georgia
2
7.9
1.2
51
Turkey
Year: 2010
5
Azerbaijan
8.6
47.0
IR Iran
Data source: CERA
9
Black Sea;
Oil Transportation & Threats
Best estimates of Oil transportation from FSU indicates a
relatively moderate increases into the Black Sea.
Medium and Heavy Fuel Oil transportation presents
significant risk from both probability and consequence.
Industry recognizes the risks of oil transportation and its
role in effective prevention and preparedness.
Absence of enforcement of a - for the region harmonized legal framework based on international standards &
experiences increases pollution & risks for accidental spills.
“It seams that today the countries of the Black Sea are in a kind
of intermediate stage; on one hand environmental law are
already passed or in discussion but on the other hand in
practice they are not performed yet.”
-NATO/CCMS/METU10
Oil Pollution Prevention;
Experience From a Legal Framework
Spills Reduced by 95% after Introduction of Legal Framework.
Framework Focus;
 Prevention (“Prevention through people” & Double Hull)
 Preparedness (Contingency Plans, Aboard & Ashore)
 Response (Organizational Capability)
 Liability & Compensation (Deterrent to pollute)
 Research & Develop. (Prevention & Response Techniques)
Double Hull Tankers, Is It the Answer to all issues ?
Partly, and Only if;
 Maintained at high Standard
 Operated by Personnel, Well Trained and Committed to Job.
 Designed and Built to High Standard.
Prevention through Enforcement of Legal Framework, Yes!
11
Oil Pollution Prevention – U.S. Experience
Spills from All Vessels in US Waters
Volume of spills (000 bbls) or Number of spills >100 gallons (÷ 2)
300
Volume of spills
275
250
Number of spills
225
Legal Framework Introduced
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983
1982
1981
1980
0
Data source: USCG and MMS
12
Oil Pollution Prevention;
International & Industry Initiatives
IMO
Maintain Lead and Legal Framework; Source for International
and Regional Cooperation Combating Shipboard Pollution.
MARPOL 73/78, OPRC, CLC, LDC, STCW 78/95 etc.
& in Broad Cooperation from Industry Supported thorough;
IPIECA, OCIMF, API, MOIG, ICS, etc. by Initiatives Such as;
Global Initiative, SIRE Tanker vetting, ISGOTT, Regional
Response Drills etc.
All with the Aim to Support a Cleaner and Sustainable Black
Sea, as Identified by Leading Regional Sources [UNEP, BSEP etc.]
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Black Sea;
One of Industry’s Initiatives
Six IPIECA* members have recently concluded an Oil Spill
Preparedness Study for the Caspian and Black Seas:
 Recommendations now being implemented.
 Promoting cooperation with governments & others.
 Supporting regional and national planning efforts.
 Response training and exercising programmes.
ChevronTexaco Supports & is Committed to this
Effort & Cooperation, Enhancing the Maritime Safety
& Environmental Standards in the Black Sea.
* International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association
14
THANK YOU !
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