Dr Vitaliy Budarin

Report
Starbons and their applications
Dr. Vitaliy Budarin
24/04/12
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Contents
1. Introduction to mesoporous materials
2. Starbon technology
3. Starbon applications:
• Nanotechnology
• Catalysis
• Water treatment
• Chromatography
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Porous materials
Pore type
Pore Size
Condensation
mechanism
Type of
Adsorption
Micropore
< 2 nm
Threedimensional
Non-specific
Mesopore
≥ 2 ≤ 50 nm
Capillary
Specific
Macropore
> 50 nm
No condensation
-
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Potential applications of
mesoporous materials
Adsorption
Nanotechnology
Chromatography
Electrochemistry
Catalysis
Filtration
Sensors
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Synthesis of Mesoporus materials
Technologies Limitation:
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Costly
Wasteful
Complicated
Time consuming
Limited functionality
Benefits:
regular & well ordered
Native mesoporous materials
Nature is adept at the self
assembly
of
organic
polymers in a wide range
of structural and storage
roles in higher plants
Is porous structures
of native materials
accessible for
chemistry?
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Expanded starch formation
Methodology utilises:
• Starch
o inexpensive, biomass
• green solvents
o water, ethanol and ScCO2
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Chem.Commun, 2002, 2632
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Starbonisation
Mesoporous
Carbon
Starbons
Starch
H+
1000C
7000C
Starbon Properties :
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Tuneable surface functionality
High mesoporosity (up to 2.0 cm3/g)
High surface areas (up to 500 m2/g)
Controllable electrical conductivity
Particulate / monolithic forms
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, 2006 45 3782
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Starbon. Texture properties
1 nm
Micropore
Mesopore
10 nm
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Starbon. Textural properties.
Influence of the preparation temperature.
A) 4000C Starbon
B) 6000C Starbon
SEM of Starbons
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Starbons functionality
Applications
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Starbon Surface modification
Starbon surface can be modified with:
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Halogens
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Sulfuric acid
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Amines
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Chitosan
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Phosphates
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Starbon application:
Synthesis of nanoparticles
•
The nanoparticle size distribution
was controllable by pore structure
of Starbon
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Green Chemistry 10 (4), 382-387, 2008
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Starbon application:
Acid catalysis in water-organic mixture
Catalyst preparation:
1)
2)
Sulfonation: 400C, 2 h.
Washing:
water
water-ethanol mixture, 800C
Succinic acid [email protected]
14/03/11
Chem.Eur.J., 2007, 13, 6914
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Rationale for activity
• Esterification should be poor in
water
• Selective adsorption / exclusion of
water?
• Reaction in pore / on surface
• Product desorbed and stable in
aqueous environment
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Adsorption of acids.
Starbon-4000C
400oC Starbon the best for succinic acid
Correlates with catalysis (?)
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Starbon application:
Decolourisation of peat water
Peat based soils
West coast of Scotland,
Ireland
Northern England
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•Low Polarity favoured for silicas and Starbons
•Starbons better (high pore size )
•Best adsorbs ca. 200mg/g
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Adsorption kinetic
Methylene blue
• High mesoporosity tend to increase rate of adsorption
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Starbon application:
Decolourisation of peat water
• No acid catalyst
• 95% mesoporosity
• Good sugar isomer separation
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Advanced Functional Materials, 20 (11), 1834-1841, 2010
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Conclusions
• Starbon technology is an overall more environmental friendly as
compared to commercially available mesoporous materials
• Starbons are versatile mesoporous materials
– Functionality can be controlled by preparation method
• Starbons demonstrated great promise in:
– Catalysis
– Adsorption
– Nano technology
– Chromatography
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