Chapter 13 PP Notes 2014

Section 1
Focus Question:
 How did immigration in the 1840’s influence
the balance of power between the Whig &
Democratic parties
Big Picture:
 Texas independence
 Immigration & territorial gain = political change
Expectations & Motivations
Desire for religious freedom & better economic
 Unsafe
boat rides, fake tickets, goal to find close knit
Arrival: NE & South
 Irish—no
$ for farms & worked in urban NE.
 Germans—Spread from N.O. up Miss. River
Cities demanded & welcomed immigrant labor
1860—Germany contained diverse groups,
religions, & origins.
 Farmers
& professionals.
 Levi Strauss
Language connector
 German-American
Communities: own schools,
companies, doctors…
 Did not go outside their communities.
 Struggled to gain political positions.
1815-1820—mostly Protestant & small land owners
Mid-1840’s—poor & Catholic
1815-1845—800,000 immigrated to the US
“Great Famine”
Worked in construction, textiles, & servants
Nativists & Policy
Anti-Catholic Protestants =
Feared job loss
George Henry Evans—
National Reform Association
Tried to gain land for
Unions organized to attract
Commonwealth v Hunt
1842—allowed Unions
Mass.—fired union workers
German & Irish support due
to focus on jobs
Tried to push expansion &
banking/tariffs to group
Turned off immigrant support
Supported Abolitionism (job
Supported Moral behavior
(temperance & education).
Thought G/I were spreading
bad behavior to public.
Section 2
Focus Question:
 What economic and political forces fed
westward expansion during the 1840’s?
Big Picture:
 “West”—land W. of the Appalachians & Miss.
Land & Trade
Transcontinental Treaty
or Adams Onis Treaty
(1819)—Parts of
“Oregon” territory split
between US & BR.
1820—Mexico gains
independence & takes
Mexico territory
Land & Trade
Merchants sailed around
S. America to trade with
Catholic & Spanish
Trails & trade links:
St. Louis, MO to Santa Fe,
Silver Peso
Beaver pelts
Conflict with Mexico
Stephen Austin owned land in
Texas, passed down from his
He led a group of 300
Americans to Texas to start a
small colony
Americans were told they could
stay IF they agreed to become
Mexican citizens and worship
in the Roman Catholic Church
Growing Conflict
Thousands more flooded into Texas
Disregarded Mexican law
 Brought slaves and were Protestants
1830 Mexico banned further U.S. settlement and
tried to enforce its laws
Began to levy heavy taxes on U.S. imports
Declaring Independence
In Mexico there was a
movement for a more
democratic government
1833 General Antonio
Lopez de Santa Anna
took control of
 Over
turned constitution
and began a
dictatorship (one person
1836, under urging
of Austin, Texans
independence from
What Did Mexicans Want?
What did the Americans want?
Texans at war
Santa Anna attacked the
Alamo, a mission where
Texans and Mexican Texans
(Tejanos) were gathered
The Texans and Tejanos
held out for 12 days under
heavy cannon fire before
Mexican forces overran it
Results of the Alamo
All the defenders killed in battle or executed
Inspired by their bravery, many American volunteers
joined the Texan Army
Later Sam Houston, commander of the Texan Army
led a surprise attack on Santa Anna at San Jacinto
Captured Santa Anna and forced him to recognize
Texan independence
Beginnings of the Mexican-American
Polk offered Mexican government cash to settle the
border dispute, purchase California and the rest of
New Mexico
This angered Mexico and they refused
Polk then tried to provoke the Mexicans
 Sent General Zachary Taylor into the disputed land
Mexicans ambushed them and Polk asked Congress
for a declaration of war
Settlement & Trails to the West
By 1840—small groups settled in CA, NM, & OR.
Overland Trails
month trip
 Supplies: guns, but shot themselves by accident
 Traveled in groups: starvation, hypothermia…
 “Donner Party”
1840: 11,500 immigrated & only 2,000 made it
“Californios” issues…
Trails Westward
The Doomed Donner
April, 1846 – April,
The Doomed Donner
James Reed & Wife
 Of the 83 members of the
Donner Party, only 45
survived to get to
Section 3
Focus Question
 How did westward expansion threaten war with
Britain & Mexico?
Big Picture:
 Annex Texas?
 CA? NM? OR?
 Economic Recovery
1840—William Henry
Goal to stimulate
 Revise tariffs for internal
Dies = John Tyler VP
Secret Democrat
 Vetoes Whig programs
like Compromise 1833 to
lower tariffs
 Raises tariffs to give to
North (sim to Jackson
Ashburton Treaty
 Settled
between Maine &
 Tyler thought support
would lead to support
for annexing TX
 Northern conspiracy
Great Britain
“Manifest Destiny”
 First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan
in 1845.
 ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and
to possess the whole of the continent which Providence
has given us for the development of the great
experiment of liberty and federal development of selfgovernment entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the
tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full
expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."
 A myth
of the West as a land of romance and adventure
“American Progress”
by John Gast, 1872
Manifest Destiny
1849 John O’Sullivan
 “Manifest
Destiny” or “Sea to Shining Sea”
 Justification by “God”
Spread “influences”
 Democracy,
Democratic Expansionists “New Party”
 Supported
religion, slavery
by Irish & Anti-slavery advocates
Over expansion = ungovernable empire
Annexing Texas and Oregon
Election of 1844
 Election was between Henry Clay (Whig) and
James K. Polk
 Polk won by promising to annex Texas and Oregon
Tensions with Mexico
 Mexico had never formally recognized
Texan independence
 Treaty Santa Anna signed set boundary
at Rio Grande
 Mexican government claimed boundary
was further north
 Before Polk took office President Tyler called for
admission of Texas as state
 As President, Polk negotiated a treaty with Britain
to divide Oregon (Now states of Washington,
Oregon, and parts of Idaho) (49th Parallel)
Section 4
Focus Question:
 How did the outcome of the Mexican-American War
intensify intersectional conflicts?
Big Picture:
 Gaining CA & NM = slavery issues!
The Mexican American War
War with Mexico popular with
most Americans
 Support
was strongest among
Westerners and Southerners
who wanted more land
Why would Westerners want more land?
Why would Southerners want more land?
How would the belief in “Manifest Destiny” make people
support the war?
Many Northerners argued that Polk had provoked
the war
 How
had Polk “provoked” the war?
Rebellion in California
Polk ordered troop under the command of Stephen
Kearny to invade and capture Santa Fe, New
Settlers near San Francisco had begun their own
revolt against Mexico
They raised a grizzly bear
flag and declared
California an independent
John C. Fremont took
control of the “Bear Flag
Quickly captured major
cities of California
(Monterey and San
He then moved on to join forces
with U.S. troops under the
command of Kearny
Kearny’s troops captured Santa
Fe and San Diego
United with naval units to occupy
all of southern California
Invasion of Mexico
General Zachary Taylor and General Winfield
Scott swept through Mexico with stunning victories
even though they were often outnumbered
How do you think they still won?
Scott’s campaign ended at Chapultepec, a stone
palace above the capital of Mexico City
The Mexican troops fought bravely to defend
Chapultepec, but most were killed
How is this similar to the American experience at the
After Americans won the capital city, Santa Anna fled
The U.S. had won the war
Achieving Manifest Destiny
The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo
Under the treaty, Mexico recognized the
annexation of Texas and gave the U.S. large
amounts of territory
Mexican Cession included present day California,
Nevada, Utah and parts of Wyoming, Colorado,
Arizona, and New Mexico
U.S. also paid $15 million for this land
In the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, U.S. paid
Mexico $10 million for a narrow strip of present
day Arizona and New Mexico
The Mexican Cession
How did Each Person Help bring
Mexican land under u.s. control?
A. General Kearny
B. General Zachary Taylor
C. General Winfield Scott
D. John Fremont
E. President Tyler
F. President Polk
G. Stephen Austin
H. Sam Houston

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