Document

Report
P-2028
Crew Resource Management
Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training:
Tasks P-2028
P-2028
Crew Resource Management
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Purpose:
Understand attitudes and skills that allow each
crewmember to participate as part of the team
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Properly trained aircrew members can collectively
perform complex tasks better and make more
accurate decisions than the single best performer
on the team.
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An untrained team's overall performance can be
significantly worse than the performance of its
weakest single member.
P-2028
Crew Management Goals
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Maximize human performance
Understand group dynamics
Assess, mitigate, and manage risk
Manage workload to avoid task saturation or
complacency
Improve communication inside and outside
flight deck
Maintain situational awareness
P-2028
Human Performance
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Managing Fatigue
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Scanning is physically demanding work
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Consider using search pattern turns as opportunities to
stretch muscles
Duty day rules apply to scanners and observers as
well as pilots (CAPR 60-1)
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14 hour duty day max
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Duty Day is defined as beginning when reporting to work or
the CAP activity, whichever occurs first. It ends at engine
shut down.
8 scheduled flight hours within a duty day max
Under no circumstances will flight time exceed 10 hours
10 hours rest between duty days minimum
P-2028
Other Human Performance factors
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Turbulence
Heat / Cold
Light / Contrast
Boredom
Empty Field Myopia
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Group Dynamics
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Types of authority / Leadership styles
Assertiveness
Hazardous Attitudes
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Anti-authority
Impulsiveness
Invulnerability
Macho
Resignation
Get There It-us
P-2028
The Error Chain
 A series
of event links that, when
considered together, cause a mishap.
 Should any one of the links be
“broken,” then the mishap will not
occur.
 It is up to each crewmember to
recognize a link and break the error
chain.
P-2028
Workload Management
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Little things can make a difference
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Help the pilot manage charts, checklists, etc.
Manage the CAP radio
Consider when to apply sterile flight deck
discipline
Think ahead
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use idle time to prepare for next busy activity
P-2028
Improved Communication
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Entire crew should participate in briefings and
debriefings if possible
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Otherwise the pilot should thoroughly brief the team
Pilot should plan sorties with the participation
of the aircrew
Don’t be afraid to volunteer information in the
air and on the ground
Don’t be afraid to ask relevant questions
P-2028
Situational Awareness
Keeping a mental picture of what is happening
and about to happen
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Don’t’ fixate, scan the big picture
Project ahead and consider contingencies
Rotate attention between the crew, the plane
(current situation), and the path ahead
Speak up when you see SA breaking down
P-2028
Task Saturation
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Too much information at one time
Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time
Usually occurs when an individual is
confronted with a new or unexpected situation.
Loses SA.
P-2028
Regaining Situational Awareness
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Reduce workload: Suspend the mission.
Reduce threats:
Get away from the ground and other
obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude).
– Establish a stable flight profile where you
can safely analyze the situation.
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Remember: “Aviate, Navigate,
Communicate”
P-2028
How do we get it back?
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Trust your gut feelings
“Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.”
– Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable
configuration, and then discuss the problem
Sterile Cockpit
– Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety.
– Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying,
approach, landing
P-2028
Assignment of Duties
 CAPR 60-3
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Flight-related -- aircraft commander
Mission-related -- mission commander
P-2028
Crew Coordination
Understand and execute your
assignments
 Communicate
 Question
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P-2028
Summary
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Pay close attention to all briefings.
Understand the “big picture.”
Watch for task overload in yourself and other
crewmembers.
67% of air transport accidents occur during
17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure,
approach and landing. Keep casual
conversation and distractions to a minimum
during these phases of flight.
Begin critical communications with instructions,
then explain.
P-2028
Summary
Successful missions hinge on each and
every crewmember
 Learn how to use the procedures and
tools available to you, and use them
correctly
 Never stop learning
 Don’t be afraid to ask questions
 Never criticize someone for asking
questions
 Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or
“This is Stupid”
 Practice, practice, practice!
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