P-2028 Crew Resource Management Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2028 P-2028 Crew Resource Management Purpose: Understand attitudes and skills that allow each crewmember to participate as part of the team Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team. An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member. P-2028 Crew Management Goals Maximize human performance Understand group dynamics Assess, mitigate, and manage risk Manage workload to avoid task saturation or complacency Improve communication inside and outside flight deck Maintain situational awareness P-2028 Human Performance Managing Fatigue – Scanning is physically demanding work – Consider using search pattern turns as opportunities to stretch muscles Duty day rules apply to scanners and observers as well as pilots (CAPR 60-1) 14 hour duty day max – Duty Day is defined as beginning when reporting to work or the CAP activity, whichever occurs first. It ends at engine shut down. 8 scheduled flight hours within a duty day max Under no circumstances will flight time exceed 10 hours 10 hours rest between duty days minimum P-2028 Other Human Performance factors Turbulence Heat / Cold Light / Contrast Boredom Empty Field Myopia P-2028 Group Dynamics Types of authority / Leadership styles Assertiveness Hazardous Attitudes – – – – – – Anti-authority Impulsiveness Invulnerability Macho Resignation Get There It-us P-2028 The Error Chain A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap. Should any one of the links be “broken,” then the mishap will not occur. It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain. P-2028 Workload Management Little things can make a difference – – Help the pilot manage charts, checklists, etc. Manage the CAP radio Consider when to apply sterile flight deck discipline Think ahead – use idle time to prepare for next busy activity P-2028 Improved Communication Entire crew should participate in briefings and debriefings if possible – Otherwise the pilot should thoroughly brief the team Pilot should plan sorties with the participation of the aircrew Don’t be afraid to volunteer information in the air and on the ground Don’t be afraid to ask relevant questions P-2028 Situational Awareness Keeping a mental picture of what is happening and about to happen Don’t’ fixate, scan the big picture Project ahead and consider contingencies Rotate attention between the crew, the plane (current situation), and the path ahead Speak up when you see SA breaking down P-2028 Task Saturation Too much information at one time Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation. Loses SA. P-2028 Regaining Situational Awareness Reduce workload: Suspend the mission. Reduce threats: Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude). – Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation. – Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate” P-2028 How do we get it back? Trust your gut feelings “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.” – Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem Sterile Cockpit – Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety. – Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing P-2028 Assignment of Duties CAPR 60-3 Flight-related -- aircraft commander Mission-related -- mission commander P-2028 Crew Coordination Understand and execute your assignments Communicate Question P-2028 Summary Pay close attention to all briefings. Understand the “big picture.” Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers. 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight. Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain. P-2028 Summary Successful missions hinge on each and every crewmember Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly Never stop learning Don’t be afraid to ask questions Never criticize someone for asking questions Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid” Practice, practice, practice!