Engineers-Australia-Seminar-Canberra_21-March-2013

Report
Nanotechnology Work Health
& Safety
Engineers Australia Seminar
Canberra, 21 March 2013
Presenters: Ian Ireland (Comcare)
& Howard Morris (Safe Work Australia)
1
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Introduction to nanotechnology
Work health and safety legislation
Applying the work health and safety legislation to nanomaterials
Nanomaterial hazards
Eliminating or minimising exposure to nanomaterials
Measuring and assessing exposure to nanomaterials
Nanowaste
Safe Work Australia’s Nanotechnology Work Health & Safety
Program
2
Acknowledgements
Information on some of the slides is from the draft Nanotechnology
WHS Training Course developed by RMIT School of Applied Sciences
for Safe Work Australia
• Dr Neale Jackson, Project Team Leader
• Ms Lisa Stevens
• Ms Carole Goldsmith
• Mr Stephen Thomas
Funding provided by Department of Industry, Innovation, Science,
Research and Tertiary Education under the National Enabling
Technologies Strategy
3
INTRODUCTION TO NANOTECHNOLOGY
4
Nanotechnology - Definitions
nanotechnology (ISO TS 80004-1:2010 Core terms)
application of scientific knowledge to manipulate and control matter in the
nanoscale in order to make use of size- and structure-dependent
properties and phenomena, as distinct from those associated with
individual atoms or molecules or with bulk materials
nanoscale (ISO TS 27687)
size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm
nano-object (ISO TS 27687)
material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale
– one dimension (nanoplates)
– two dimensions (nanorods, nanotubes, nanowires)
– three dimensions (nanoparticles)
5
About Nanomaterials
nanomaterial definition (ISO TS 80004:1)
material with any external dimension in the nanoscale or having internal structure
or surface structure in the nanoscale
•Nanomaterials can exist:
– as primary particles
– as aggregated or agglomerated forms
– in a range of regular or irregular shapes
Agglomeration signifies more loosely
bound particles and Aggregation signifies
very tightly bound or fused particles
NICNAS working definition of Industrial Nanomaterials
Industrial materials intentionally produced, manufactured or engineered to have
unique properties or specific composition at the nanoscale, that is a size range
typically between 1 nm and 100 nm, and is either a nano-object (ie. that is
confined in one, two, or three dimensions at the nanoscale) or is nanostructured
(ie. having an internal or surface structure at the nanoscale)
6
Particle Size Comparison
Animal, plant or
fungi membrane
cells
10
Different Types of Nanomaterials
Naturally
Occurring
Human Origin
(Incidental)
Human Origin
(Engineered/
Manufactured)
Forest fires
Cooking smoke
Metals
Sea spray
Diesel exhaust
Quantum dots
Mineral composites
Welding fumes
Nanotubes &
Nanowires
Volcanic ash
Industrial effluents
Metal oxides
Viruses
Sandblasting
Fullerenes
Nanotechnology
Adapted from: Lippy and Kulinowski
8
Properties Can Change at the Nanoscale
•
Nanomaterials can have
– unique or enhanced physical & chemical properties
– different biological & toxicological behaviour
Properties that can change include:
• Colour
• Chemical reactivity
• Electrical conductivity
• Magnetism
• Mechanical strength
9
Red Gold
Gold (~ 10 nm)
16 nm gold
National Measurement
Institute,(NMI) Australia
Bulk Gold (Au) =
Yellow
Conductive
Nonmagnetic
Chemically inert
Nano Gold = Red
Loses conductivity at ~ 1-3 nm
Becomes magnetic ~ 3 nm
Explosive and catalytic
Source: Lippy and Kulinowski
11
Nanotechnology in Australia
•
•
•
Areas such as nanomaterials, nano-biotechnology, electronics,
photonics, energy, environment, quantum technology
More than 75 nanotechnology research organisations and around 80
nanotechnology companies
Products include:
– Dyesol’s dye solar cell
– SonoEye™ from Seagull Technologies, uses a combination of
nanotechnology and ultrasound to replace injections to the eye
– TenasiTech’s high performance composite polymers
– Sunscreens
– CAP-XX’s high power and energy density supercapacitors
Sources: Australian Innovation System Report 2011, DIISRTE website
13
Nano-Enabled Glasses
•
Glasses
– Self cleaning glass
– Low reflective glass
– Switchable glass
OptiViewTM
Low reflective glass
Made by Pilkington
Source: AccessNano (adapted)
self cleaning
glass
normal
glass
14
Detecting Cancer Cells
• Small silica sphere
with thin gold coating
Breast Cancer Res Treat (2010) 120:547–555
• Enhances the detection of
cancer cells in real time
Why nanoparticles?
• Gold plated nanoparticles visible
to imaging process
without
nanoshells
with
nanoshells
without
nanoshells
with
nanoshells
normal
HER2cancer
HER2+
cancer
13
Nanomaterials - Manufacturing
Key characteristics of nanoparticles
• Particle size, size distribution, shape, composition
• Degree of particle agglomeration
Nanomaterial production methods
• Bottom up & top down methods
• Solid, liquid & gas phase synthesis
• Milling & grinding
• Precipitation
• Vapour phase reactions
14
WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION
15
Model WHS Legislation
• Council of Australia Governments formally committed to
harmonisation of WHS laws (July 2008)
• Model work health and safety legislation:
– model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Act
– model Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations
– model Codes of Practice
– National Compliance and Enforcement Policy
– supported by guidance material
• Developed by Safe Work Australia
– Partnership of Commonwealth, state & territory governments, ACTU
(representing workers), ACCI & AIG (representing employers)
16
Model WHS Legislation - Implementation
• New WHS laws commenced in NSW, Queensland, ACT,
Commonwealth and Northern Territory, 1 January 2012
• New laws commenced in South Australia & Tasmania on
1 January 2013
17
Model WHS Legislation – Duty Holders
• Person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU)
– Persons who have management or control of a workplace
– Manufacturers
– Importers
– Suppliers
– Designers
• Officers
• Workers
18
WHS Regulations - Managing Risks
Duty to identify hazards
•
A duty holder must identify reasonably
foreseeable hazards that could give rise to
risks to health and safety
Managing risks to health and safety
•
A duty holder must:
(a) eliminate risks to health and safety
so far as is reasonably practicable
(b) if it is not reasonably practicable to
eliminate risks to health and safety
— minimise those risks so far as is
reasonably practicable
Code of Practice - How to Manage
Work Health and Safety Risks
19
Reasonably Practicable
What is reasonably able to be done to ensure health and safety, taking
into account all relevant matters including:
•
•
•
•
the likelihood of the hazard or the risk occurring
the degree of harm that might result
availability & suitability of ways to eliminate or minimise the risk
what a person ought reasonably to know about the hazard or risk
and how to eliminate or minimise the risk
• cost associated with eliminating or minimising the risk
20
Duties of Designers
Model WHS Act, Section 22
• Duties apply to the designer - the PCBU that designs
plant, substance or structure for workplace use
• Designer must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable,
that the plant, substance or structure is designed to be
without risks to the health and safety of persons
• Duties involve, where necessary:
– calculations, analysis, testing or examination
– giving adequate information to each person who is
provided with the design
21
WHS Regulations for Workplace
Chemicals
• Manufacturer or importer must:
− determine whether a substance is a hazardous chemical
− if it is, prepare a safety data sheet and correct label
• Hazard classification is according to the GHS
• Supplier of a hazardous chemical to a workplace must ensure that
the current safety data sheet for the chemical is provided
• PCBU must ensure that hazards in relation to using, handling or
storing a chemical at the workplace are identified, and the
associated risk is eliminated or minimised so far as is reasonably
practicable.
22
APPLYING THE WORK HEALTH AND SAFETY
LEGISLATION TO NANOMATERIALS
23
Application of Work Health and Safety
Regulatory Framework to Nanotechnologies
• Obligations under work health and safety legislation need to
be met for nanomaterials and nanotechnologies
• Where understanding of nanomaterial hazards is limited
– use precautionary approach to prevent or minimise
workplace exposures to manufactured nanomaterials
Workplaces can have a number of hazardous chemicals
• Engineered nanomaterials & other chemicals
Controls used must be appropriate for both
• Chosen based on hazards of nanomaterials and other
chemicals in the workplace
24
Taking a Precautionary Approach
There are a number of possible approaches if there is only a limited
understanding nanomaterial hazards e.g:
Approach 1
•
By considering what would be a reasonable worst case, determine how
severe the hazard could be
•
Choose controls that are appropriate for that hazard severity
Approach 2
•
Assume nanomaterials are highly hazardous
•
Implement high level engineering controls – enclosure or isolation
Approach 3
•
Identify controls used for the same/similar process with larger particles
•
Use more stringent controls for nanomaterials
– e.g. if general ventilation is used for larger particles, use LEV for
nanomaterials
25
Supporting Regulation
SDS & Workplace Labelling
•
Safety Data Sheets (SDS) and workplace labels must be
provided if chemical classified as hazardous
– Many engineered & manufactured nanomaterials are not
currently classified
– Issues with SDS & labels for nanomaterials (J.Frangos,
Toxikos 2010)
•
Model Codes of Practice for SDS & Workplace Labelling
– Recommend SDS/label should be provided for
engineered or manufactured nanomaterials unless
evidence they are not hazardous
•
International work on SDS & nanomaterials
– ISO Technical Report: Preparation of safety data sheets
for manufactured nanomaterials
– UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the GHS
26
NANOMATERIAL HAZARDS
27
Health impacts of emissions containing
incidental nanoparticles
Human Origin
(Incidental)
Cooking smoke
Health Impacts
Pneumonia; chronic respiratory disease; lung
cancer
Cancer; respiratory disease
Diesel exhaust
IARC classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to
humans (2012)
Welding fumes
Metal fume fever; infertility; benign pneumoconiosis
Sandblasting
Silicosis
Adapted from: Drs Lippy and
Kulinowski
Considerable knowledge on health impacts of fine &
ultrafine particulate air pollution
28
Health Hazards – Factors that Impact on
Toxicity
• Original toxicity of bulk material
• Size (within the nanoscale range)
• Surface area
• Shape, aspect ratio & length
• Solubility
• Surface coating
• Biopersistence
• Agglomeration state
29
Exposure Pathway Model
Process
Work
surfaces
Air
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Skin
absorption
Source: Drs Lippy and Kulinowski, from Mulhausen and Damiano
38
Workplace - Main Concern is Exposure
by Inhalation
• Airborne nanoparticles
can be inhaled and
deposit in the respiratory
tract
• Inhaled nanoparticles
may enter the blood
stream and translocate to
other organs
Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Respiratory_Tract.png
Nanoparticle penetration into the lung depends on its
size, e.g. on its agglomeration state
Source: Drs Lippy and Kulinowski
31
Particle Toxicity
Particle exposure
Low
dose
High
dose
Normal
clearance
Cell Repair &
Removal
No adverse effect
(Macrophage)
Inflammatory cell
recruitment
Prolonged
stress
Growth
factors
(oxidative)
(Cytokines)
Inflammatory
response
cell proliferation
Cell damage
(Epithelial)
Proliferation of
fibroblasts
Genotoxicity
Mutations
Lung Fibrosis
Cell
transformation
Lung Cancer
Source:
T o xicolo g y C o n su lta n ts
32
Fibre Toxicity
Fibre exposure
Deposition
Short Fibre
Effective
removal
Long Fibre
Non-biopersistant
(phagocytosis &
macrophage)
Biopersistant
Incomplete
removal
Breaks
(phagocytosis)
No adverse
effect
Dissolves
Cancer
(mesothelioma)
Fibrosis
Prolonged
inflammation
Granuloma
Source:
T o xicolo g y C o n su lta n ts
33
Health Hazards – Inhalation hazards
• Range of hazard severities
• Can have:
– Particle toxicity
– Fibre toxicity
• Nanoparticles generally more toxic than
larger particles of same material
• Total particle surface area better predictor of
toxicity than mass dose
• Animal studies have indicated:
– nanoparticles may induce cancers in rodents,
including mesothelioma from biopersistent fibre-like
nanomaterials
– formation of rapid and persistent
pulmonary fibrosis
Alveolar Epithelial Penetration by Multi-walled
Carbon Nanotube
Courtesy of R. Mercer, NIOSH
34
Dermal Exposure
•
Several studies show little or no penetration of nanoscale oxides
beyond surface skin layers, e.g.:
Small amounts of zinc from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens
applied outdoors are absorbed through human skin.
Toxicol Sci. 2010 Nov;118(1):
B.Gulson, M.McCall et al
Skin cannot be ruled out as a potential
route of exposure
35
Health Hazards of Carbon Nanotubes
• Potentially hazardous if fibre-like, but also if not fibre-like
• Durability of carbon nanotubes and their potential to cause
inflammation (M. Osmond et al, CSIRO/IOM/Edinburgh
University 2011)
– Carbon nanotubes can be durable but may break down in
simulated lung fluid, depending on sample type
– If fibre-like and sufficiently long, carbon nanotubes can
induce asbestos-like responses in the peritoneal cavity of
mice, but this response is significantly reduced if
nanotubes are less durable
– Tightly agglomerated particle-like bundles of carbon
nanotubes did not cause an inflammatory response in the
peritoneal cavity of mice
36
Human Health Hazard Assessment &
Classification of Carbon Nanotubes
•
Classification undertaken by NICNAS (2012) according to both:
– 3rd Revised Edition of the GHS
– Approved criteria for classifying hazardous substances
• being replaced by the GHS criteria
• may still be used during the regulatory transition period
•
Summary of the recommended GHS classifications by NICNAS
Classification
recommended
Health Hazard End Point
Classified as hazardous
Carcinogenicity: Category 2
Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure: Category 2
Not classified as
hazardous
Acute toxicity: Oral, Dermal
Serious eye irritation
Skin irritation
Skin sensitisation
Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure
Cannot be classified
Acute toxicity: Inhalation
Respiratory sensitisation
Germ cell mutagenicity
Reproductive toxicity
37
Laser Printer Emissions Measured as
Particles
• Based on exposures measured in Laser printer emissions in
workplace environments (P.McGarry et al, QUT/WHSQ 2011)
– Majority of nanoparticle exposure experienced by workers
did not come from printers but from other sources
– Considered emissions measured as particles
• Comparison of laser printer particle emissions with Australian
& international benchmarks
• Risk of direct toxicity and health effects from exposure to laser
printer particle emissions for most people is negligible, but
people responsive to unusual or unexpected odours may
detect and react to the presence of emissions
A brief review of health effects of laser printer emissions (R.Drew, Toxikos 2011)
38
Emissions from composites & other solid
articles during machining
• Quantity of emissions not significantly affected by
presence of nanomaterials
• High energy machining processes emit significantly
higher numbers of particles
• Lower emissions can be achieved using wet
machining in place of dry machining
• Mixture of particles is released from composites
– mostly from matrix
• 2 studies reported emission of free carbon nanotubes
& nanofibres - other machining studies did not detect
the emission of free carbon nanotubes
Investigating the emissions of nanomaterials from composites and
other solid articles during machining processes, CSIRO 2013
Potential health risk from emissions
• Unless reinforcing nano-objects are of high
toxicity, similar health risk from machining of
composites with/without reinforcing nano-objects
• Potential health risk from high energy machining
processes
• Levels of emissions from low energy process
should not present a significant health risk, unless
emitted particles have high toxicity
Investigating the emissions of nanomaterials from composites and
other solid articles during machining processes, CSIRO 2013
Safety Hazards of Nanomaterials
• Accidental explosions involving metal nanopowders
have resulted in deaths of workers
– during production of aluminium nanopowder by
mechanical attrition milling
– in premix plant of a slurry explosive factory when
loading a batch mixer with very fine aluminium flake
• Dust clouds of a some types of engineered
nanomaterials can result in very strong explosions if
– concentrations of engineered nanomaterials in air
are sufficiently high, and
– dusts can be ignited
• Severity of explosion for engineered nanomaterials no
higher than for micron-sized counterparts
Evaluation of potential safety (physicochemical) hazards associated with
the use of engineered nanomaterials (Toxikos 2013)
Evaluation of potential safety hazards
• Minimum explosive concentration (MEC) is significantly
higher (30-70g/m3) than found in a well-managed
workplace as a result of fugitive emissions from
nanotechnology processes
• In some situations where production is not designed
and/or controlled effectively, air concentrations in
localised areas may be sufficiently high to result in
explosions
• Minimum ignition energy (MIE) varies with material type
– Nanoscale metal powders are easily ignited (low MIE,
<10mJ)
– Carbon nanomaterials are not easily ignited (high MIE,
>1000mJ)
Evaluation of potential safety (physicochemical) hazards associated with
the use of engineered nanomaterials (Toxikos 2013)
ELIMINATING OR MINIMISING EXPOSURE TO
NANOMATERIALS
43
Likelihood of Nanoparticle Exposure in
the Workplace
Material & application dependent
• Potentially highest when handling free particles
– Transfer of nanomaterials in open systems
– Cleaning of “dust” collection systems
– Equipment maintenance
– Clean-up of spilled nanomaterials
• Lower when
– Working with articles containing embedded nanoparticles
– During manufacturing in enclosed systems
44
RMIT University©2010
NanoSafe Australia
44
Workplace Controls for Nanomaterials
•
Control of exposure
– conventional controls can
effectively reduce exposures
– apply the hierarchy of control
N. Jackson et al, RMIT University
2009
Use of PPE when working
in fume cabinet with
engineered nanomaterials
(CSIRO, 2009)
45
Level 2 – Substitution & Modification
Substitution more likely than elimination
• Issue – maintaining product properties
C. Sayes et al. (2004) Nano Letters 4(10):1881-87
46
Level 2 - Isolation Controls
Good evidence of successful application
in several situations/scenarios
Gloveboxes are a type of isolation being
used for handling nanoparticles
Nanomaterial testing. Photo courtesy EPI Services, Inc
47
Effectiveness of Engineering Controls
Process enclosure
Blending with carbon nanotubes for composites.
(Han et al, Inhalation Toxicology, 2008)
Number of
CNTs/cm3
Before process
enclosure
After process
enclosure
Personal
193.6
0.018
Area
172.9
0.05
Process 2 - C
7.00E+04
6.00E+04
extrusion
machine
started polyurethane
additive only
5.00E+04
extraction
turned off
extraction turned
back on
clay
added to
hopper
extrusion
stopped
4.00E+04
local
extraction
ventilation
turned on
3.00E+04
2.00E+04
1.00E+04
Time
CPC3781 background
13:12
12:57
12:43
12:28
12:14
12:00
11:45
11:31
11:16
0.00E+00
11:02
Particle Number Concentration (p cm-3)
opened
extruder
plate
release
artificial
smoke
LEV Effectiveness
From McGarry et al (QUT/WHSQ 2012)
CPC3781 at source
48
Nanoparticle Filtration
Fibrous filters are efficient for capturing
nanoparticles
• For Particles >1000 nm
– Interception (collision with fibre)
– Inertia (don’t deviate with air flow around
fibre)
•
For Particles <100 nm (nanoparticles)
– Diffusion (Brownian motion enhances
collision)
Max Penetrating Particle Size (MPPS)
150-300 nm
(EU Nanosafe2, Jan 2008)
49
RMIT University©2010
NanoSafe Australia
49
Level 3 – Administrative Controls
Used to supplement engineering controls
•
Some nanomaterial-specific practices
– Sticky mats at room entrances to prevent transfer by foot
– Routine maintenance & clean-up of work areas, clean-up of spills
• wet wiping & vacuum cleaning, dry wipe for liquid spills only
• use of respirators & dermal protection
– Waste disposal (nanomaterials & used PPE, wipes, equipment )
• separate disposal containers
• recycling nanomaterials
• incinerating waste nanomaterials on-site (carbonaceous)
• returning nanomaterials to suppliers
ISO TR 12855: Health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant
to nanotechnologies (2008)
50
Level 3 – Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
Used to supplement engineering controls
Gloves
• Nitrile (most generally used), Neoprene,
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Latex
• Single/Double gloving
Protective Clothing
Eye Protection
• Face shields, Safety glasses, Goggles
Masks
• Full or half respirators - P2 & P3 type masks,
Dust masks
51
Control of Safety Hazards
• Same principles that apply to management of fine
powders, dusts & dusty materials should be considered
– Avoid dust becoming airborne
– Handling combustible nanopowders in liquid form
when possible
– Design of machinery to prevent ignitions and sparks
• control operating temperature of electrical equipment
– Use of controlled-atmosphere production and storage
processes
• risk of asphyxiation
52
MEASURING & ASSESSING EXPOSURE TO
NANOMATERIALS
53
Measuring Workplace Exposures &
Emissions of Manufactured Nanomaterials
•
Measurement challenges
– Many different types
1 .2 e + 5
a fte r 1 6 m in
– Tend to agglomerate
a fte r 3 2 m in
1 .0 e + 5
a fte r 4 4 m in
•
Which parameters to measure?
d N /d lo g d P / c m
– Background nanoparticles
-3
a fte r 6 0 m in
a fte r 9 2 m in
6 .0 e + 4
4 .0 e + 4
– mass concentration
2 .0 e + 4
– number concentration
0 .0
– size distribution
– shape and chemistry
– surface area
a fte r 7 6 m in
8 .0 e + 4
10
100
P a rtic le D ia m e te r / n m
Size distributions of Pt particles after release in a clean exposure
chamber. NANOTRANSPORT (2008):
The Behaviour of Aerosols Released to Ambient Air
from Nanoparticle Manufacturing
54
Approach for Workplace Measurement
3-tiered approach can be used
• Tier 1 assessment - standard occupational hygiene
survey of process area & measurements to identify
likely points of particle emission
• Tier 2 assessment - measuring particle number and
mass concentration to evaluate emission sources &
workers’ breathing zone exposures
• Tier 3 assessment - repeat Tier 2 measurements &
simultaneous collection of particles for off-line analysis
Measurements of Particle Emissions from Nanotechnology Processes,
with Assessment of Measuring Techniques and Workplace Controls
(P.McGarry et al, QUT/WHSQ, 2012)
55
Measurement of Nanoparticle Emissions
Research set-up for
measurement of
nanoparticle emissions
(P.McGarry et al, QUT/WHSQ,
2012)
Combination of P-Trak,
DustTrak & OPC
sufficient for workplace
investigations
56
Exposure Standards
Type of
Standard/Limit
Substance
Size of material
Exposure Standard/Limit
3 mg/m3
8 or 10 hour TWA,
Australian WES
Graphite (all forms
except fibres)
Respirable
3 (respirable)
Australian WES
Carbon black
Nanomaterial
3 (inhalable)
US NIOSH
Proposed REL
Carbon nanofibres,
including CNTs
Nanomaterial
0.007
Japan AIST
Proposed EL
Fullerenes
Nanomaterial
0.39
Australian WES
Crystalline silica
Respirable
0.1 (respirable)
Australian WES
Amorphous silica
Inhalable
10 (inhalable)
Australian WES
Fumed silica
Nanomaterial
2 (respirable)
US NIOSH REL
TiO2
Nanomaterial
0.3
US NIOSH REL
TiO2
Fine size fraction
2.4
Australian WES
TiO2
Inhalable
10 (inhalable)
57
NANOWASTE
58
Nanomaterials Waste Streams
• Manufactured nanomaterials
• Nano by-products, organic or inorganic
• Liquid suspensions containing nanomaterials
• Items contaminated with nanomaterials (e.g. wipes/PPE).
• Solid matrices containing nanomaterials.
http://cohesion.rice.edu/centersandinst/icon/emplibrary/Mustafa_Nanomaterials%20W
orkshop-Houston-Texas(FINAL).ppt
Also need to deal with:
• Spills & accidental releases
59
Potential Approaches for Handling
Nanowaste
• Reuse/recycle
– cost of material promotes conservation
- may require separation or segregation of nanomaterials and nanoproducts
• Acid dissolution of metals
• High‐temperature incineration of organic nanomaterials
• Sintering of ceramics or oxides
• Long-term storage for inorganics
• Landfill
General waste handling regulations apply for handling nanowaste in Australia
- currently there are no nanowaste-specific regulations in Australia
60
SAFE WORK AUSTRALIA’S
NANOTECHNOLOGY WORK HEALTH &
SAFETY PROGRAM
61
Nanotechnology WHS Program
• Managed by the Safe Work Australia agency
• Supported by funding under National Enabling
Technologies Strategy
• National groups
– Nanotechnology Work Health & Safety Advisory
Group
– Nanotechnology Work Health & Safety Measurement
Reference Group
62
Program Focus Areas
• Nanotechnologies & WHS regulatory framework
• Hazardous properties of manufactured nanomaterials
• Effectiveness of workplace controls
• Emissions and exposure measurement
• Information for nanotechnology organisations
• Participating in international initiatives & consistency with
international approaches
63
Published Research Reports
Plus
• Durability of carbon nanotubes and their potential to cause inflammation
• Nanoparticles from printer emissions in workplace environments
• Health effects of laser printer emissions measured as particles
• Human health hazard assessment and classification of carbon nanotubes
64
Other Nanotechnology WHS information
On Safe Work Australia website - www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au
• WHS assessment tool for handling engineered nanomaterials
• Guidance - Safe handling & use of carbon nanotubes (CSIRO 2012)
• Information sheets
− Use of laser printers
− Safe handling of carbon nanotubes
− Measuring and assessing emissions and exposures
− Classification of carbon nanotubes as hazardous chemicals
− Safety hazards of nanomaterials
− Emissions of nanomaterials during machining processes
Elsewhere, for example:
• WHS Regulators websites
• ACTU website
• OECD Working Party for Manufactured Nanomaterials & ISO documents
65
Research, Regulation, Guidance & Training
- For Carbon Nanotubes
•
Understanding hazards
– Reviews of nanomaterials health hazards & safety hazards (Toxikos)
– Durability of carbon nanotubes and their potential to cause
inflammation (CSIRO/IOM/Edinburgh University)
•
Regulation
– Health hazard assessment & recommended classification (NICNAS)
•
Measurement of carbon nanotubes emissions/exposures
– Detection in the workplace (CSIRO)
– Determining/validating suitable techniques (QUT/WHSQ)
– Potential emissions from solid articles from machining (CSIRO)
•
Guidance & training materials
– Safe handling & use of carbon nanotubes (CSIRO)
– Nanotechnology WHS training course (draft, RMIT University)
66
Summary
• Obligations under Work Health and Safety legislation need to be
met for nanomaterials and nanotechnologies
• Safety by design – Effective design of workplace engineering
controls is critical
• Limited information on hazards of nanomaterials
• Conventional controls can be used to minimise exposure
– take precautionary approach in choosing controls
67
Further Information
www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au
68

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