PowerPoint 簡報 - TWNIC

Report
外交事務協會演講活動
國際網路組織與我國網路外交
TWNIC
陳文生、左玉苓、李曉陽、王昱文
{wschen, joanna, anthony, albert}@twnic.net.tw
2002.02.26
2002/02/26
1
Agenda
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
2002/02/26
Introduction and Internet History
How does Internet work?
What is TWNIC ?
What is ICANN ?
(1) ICANN-ccTLDs
(2) ICANN-GAC
(3) ICANN-IETF
APNIC/APRICOT
ICANN At Large and ISOC
AP Related Internet Organizations
Q&A
2
Introduction and
Internet History
Taiwan’s Profile
East China Sea

Population : 22.4 million (12/ 2001)

Size : 13,969 square miles

GNP 2000 : US$ 314.4 billion

GNP per capita 2000 : US$ 14,216

Telephone lines : 12.85 million
(12/2001)


Cellular phone : 21.63 million (12/2001)


Penetration : 57.3 lines/100 pop
Penetration : 96.6 users/100 pop
CATV penetration : 82.2 home passed
/100 hh (12/2001)
Pacific Ocean 
Internet : 7.82 million (12/2001)

2002/02/26
Penetration : 35.0 users/100 pop
4
Growth of Internet users in Taiwan
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
online population
(thousand)
penetration rate
35% 40%
34%
32%
7,820
30% 7,2107,550
35%
28% 6,740
30%
25% 6,260
22% 5,570
25%
4,800
18%
4,020
20%
14%
10% 3,010
8% 2,170
6%
1,660
1,260
2% 3%
440 600
10%
5%
0%
85
/6
85
/1
2
86
/6
86
/1
2
87
/6
87
/1
2
88
/6
88
/1
2
89
/6
89
/1
2
90
/0
3
90
/0
6
90
/0
9
90
/1
2
0
15%
Source: FIND, ECRC, III / sponsored by DOIT, MOEA
2002/02/26
5
Internet to overseas areas
Singapore
U. S.
Hong
Kong
5,072M
99M
Australia
987M
20M
China
495M
10M
Japan
S.Korea
424M
Macao
14.6M
106M
Others
The total bandwidth for international network connection in
Taiwan has reached 7,228 Mbps as of December 2001
Source
2002/02/26
: TWNIC & FIND, ECRC, III & NCA (2001/12)
6
Internet users worldwide
Unit: million
160
140
120
100
134.6
114.4
Taiwan ranks No.11
in terms of weekly
net-users worldwide,
No. 5 in Asia Pacific
Weekly Internet Users
All Internet Users
80
60
40
20
33.9
25.4 19.9 15.4 16.8 19.0 22.5 12.5
9.0 7.6 7.0 5.5 4.4 5.6 7.5
14.9 13.1 12.6 12.4 11.3 9.3
6.3 5.3 4.5 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.0
U.
S.
Ja
pa
Ge n
rm
an
y
Ca
na
da
So U.
K
ut
hK .
or
ea
Ch
in
a
Ita
ly
Fr
an
Au ce
str
ali
a
Ta
i
Ne wan
th
er
lan
d
Sw
ed
en
Sp
ain
Ru
ss
ia
0
Source: Computer Industry Almanac (2001/03)
Compiled by : FIND, ECRC, III / sponsored by DOIT, MOEA
2002/02/26
7
Major Development of Internet in Taiwan
Population: 10,000
900
In Q4 of 2001, the total bandwidth of overseas connection in Taiwan
reached7228.42Mbps
NICI IPv6 team was officially formed, and IPv6 was listed as one major item for the NII
program
The Executive Yuan passed a resolution to accomplish the 4 major objectives of e-government, e-industry, e-community
and the NII program in five years with a budget of 40 billion NTD and administered by NICI.
Deregulate 3G mobile communication and accept application for
licensing
The Legislative Yuan passed the “Law on Electronic Signature” in the 3rd
reading
Up to 7.5 million Internet users with user rate at 34%
Internet User
800
700
Deregulate the ISR licensing
Deregulate the leasing of International Submarine Cable
Service
Deregulate fixed network communication
service
Deregulate the leasing of land cable for local and domestic long distance call
service
Up to 5 million Internet Users
600
500
Deregulate satellite fixed communication service
400
TWNIC turned to be a
corporation
Deregulate satellite mobile communication service
Deregulate Intranet Service
300
TWNIC and CHT jointly formed the national network
exchange center
Up to 3 million Internet Users
Advocate the NII Project in full
fledge
TANet,HiNet,Seednet Multiple points connection
200
Deregulate mobile data communication service
Deregulate mobile phone service
Up to 1 million Internet Users
100
0
The NII team of the
Executive Yuan set the
objective of 3 million
Internet users in three years
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Note 1:TANet is the first institution that connected the Internet worldwide in July 1990. Seednet and HiNet followed in June 1992 and March 1994 respectively.
Note 2: The Directorate General of Telecommunications deregulated the 【Internet Service 】and 【Videoconferencing Service】in December 1995.
2002/02/26
8
Internet History : Major Milestones











2002/02/26
1969 - 1985 Basic Packet Net Research
1974 - Internet design first published
1983 - first major deployment
1986 - first router companies
19XX – FIX East, FIX West
1989 - WWW; MCI Mail/Internet link
1989 - first comm’l services (UUNet, PSINet,
CERFNet and CIX)
1990 - ARPANET retired
1994 - Commercial WWW (Netscape)
1995 - NSFNet retired, competitive backbone
1998 - New IANA/ICANN
9
Internet History
2002/02/26
10
Internet History
2002/02/26
11
How does Internet work?
Packet vs Circuit Switching


Circuit (telephony) like reserving
bicycle lanes from LA to NY!
Packet (Internet) like sharing of the
highway among high speed cars.
Internet Packet Formats
“from” address
166.45.18.99
“to” address
204.146.165.100
Version
number CONTENTS
“4”
“hello”
An Internet Packet
2002/02/26
13
The Internet Bucket Brigade
From: eop.gov
To: wcom.com
An electronic postcard (“packet”)
01101110
11100111
A router
Another router
A bucket of packets
2002/02/26
14
Internet Architecture
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
Internet Protocol (IP)
Cable
Enterprise
xDSL,
FTTH,
Dial
Aggregation
Internet Backbone
Residential
ISP’s
Telecommuter
2002/02/26
Enterprise
15
Internet Protocol (IP) Addressing




IPv4 - 32 bits
initially, 256 networks … then mix of:
 Class A (128 with 16 M hosts)
 Class B (16,384 with 65K hosts)
 Class C (2M with 256 hosts)
Now, Classless Inter-domain addresses
 up to 4.3 Billion hosts, hundreds of thousands of
networks
For example: 140.109.10.11 is an Internet address this is
really just a way to represent a 32 bit number that is
how Internet Protocol version 4 represents locations
in the Internet, like telephone numbers in the
telephone network
2002/02/26
16
Protocols and Identifiers



Protocols are procedures and formats that are used to
enable computer to computer communication.
To support this, computers share common knowledge of
identifiers to make clear which protocols are being used.
For example, Internet Protocol version 4 is in use today;
IPv6 is coming
IP address and Domain Name
 Standford.edu, ntu.edu.tw …….
 Domain Name Service to map Name to IP address
cc.ntu.edu.tw ----- 140.112.1.2
2002/02/26
17
Global Domain Name Hierarchy
.
INT
Arpa cn, hk,..
root servers
tw
gov, mil
...
com, org, net (gTLD)
NSAP
gov, mil, idv
net
edu org com
…..
203
192
. ..
140
acer
ncku
nctu
113
hc
127
ee
114
cc
nehs
cis
ns1
6 ...
hchs
250
bbs
...
mail
www
..
www
2
IP6
2002/02/26
in-addr
www.cc.nctu.edu.tw
<=> 140.113.6.2
18
Domain Name Hierarchy
Top Level Domain (TLD) Name(1st Level):
.tw
.cn
.jp
.tv
……..
.gov .edu .mil .int
.net .com .org .biz .info .name
.museum……
2nd Level:
com.tw net.tw org.tw .idv.tw
政府.tw 教育.tw XXXX.tw (ex. 宏碁.tw) …….
co.jp .ae.jp .or.jp .ne.jp …….
com.cn org.cn net.cn ………..
3rd Level:
acer.com.tw tba.org.tw ntu.edu.tw
台大.教育.tw 研發.宏碁.tw ………..
2002/02/26
19
DNS Root Server
DNS Root
.
DNS Root
.
gTLD
ngTLD
ccTLD
gTLD
ngTLD ccTLD mgTLD mccTLD
.com
.biz
.us
.com
.biz
.us
.jp
.org
.info
.jp
.org
.info
.net
.name
.cn
.net
.name
.cn
.edu
.pro
.tw
.edu
.pro
.tw
.gov
.aero
.kr
.gov
.aero
.kr
.int
.museum
.uk
.int
.museum
.uk
.mil
.coop
.de
.mil
.coop
.de
.tv
(7)
(7)
(7)
……(243)
gTLD: Genernic Top Level Domain
ngTLD: New gTLD
ccTLD: Country Code TLD
2002/02/26
(7)
.公司
.美國
.商業
.日本
.網路
.中國
.組織
.台灣
…….
………
.tv
……(243)
mgTLD: Multilingual gTLD
mccTLD: Multilingual ccTLD
20
Domain Names Terms




gTLD: Generic Top Level Domain (TLD) Name
.edu, .com, .org, .net, .mil, .gov, .int
.biz, .info., .name, .museum, . aero., .coop., .pro
ccTLD: country codes TLD
.us, .de, .jp, .tw, .cn, ……….
The system is hierarchical and each name is unique:
www.cisco.com, www.yahoo.com.tw………
Top level (e.g. .com, .tw) managed by a person/Org.
assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Root <--DN Registry DN Registrar  DN Registrant
2002/02/26
21
Asia MAP
Source: http://www.apnic.net/map
APNIC’s
Definition:
AP Region
Comprising
62 economies
In
Asia and
Oceania
(ISO-3166)
2002/02/26
22
Oceania MAP
2002/02/26
Source: http://www.apnic.net/map
23
Internet Governance:
How to manage Cyberspace?
 Who are using the Internet ?
ccTLD Registry
gTLD Registry
Commercial/Business
ISP
Non-Commercial Intellectual Property
Registrar
At large/Individuals
Is that all ? Who else ?
 Who is listening our opinions for using the Internet ?
Domastic: ccTLD Registry ? Company ? Lawyers ? Government ?
International: ICANN ? APTLD ? APNIC ?
 Who decide Internet policy ?
Self-Organized?/ Self-Coordinated?
Self-Governed? / Self-Managed?
Who are “SELF”? Are we “SELF”? What does “SELF” mean by?
2002/02/26
24
Who will decide your rights
in the cyberspace?



2002/02/26
1970s – 1990s:
Rules have been set through “RFC” by a small
group of engineers.
1998 – up to now:
Rules have been set through “ICANN”(Private
Org) and others(CNNIC, JPNIC, KRNIC, TWNIC,
etc) through “Policies” in the name of “consensus”
Future:
Will Rules be set by “Gov’ts or Private Orgs”
through “national treaties or policies”????
25
Internet Organization
1. General Org.
ICANN (GAC, ALSC, ….), ISOC, AP*STAR, APNG……..
2. Domain Name and Policy Org.
ICANN (DNSO, ccTLD…), APTLD, WIPO, CDNC,
MINC…….
3. IP Address and Policy Org.
ICANN (ASO), APNIC….
4. Protocol and Engineering Org.
IETF (IDN, mobileip, CNRP….), W3C, ITU…….
2002/02/26
26
What is TWNIC ?
A Brief History of TWNIC




Voluntary effort (1986—1990)
Academic Project (1990-1996)
Under the Computer Society of R.O.C. (1996—1999)
Founded as A Not-Profit Incorporation (1999/12/29--)
-- DGT (Directorate General Telecommunications) of MOTC
-- The Computer Society of R.O.C.
=Independent Operation & Finance
2002/02/26
28
TWNIC 組織架構圖
董監事會(董事長)
DN
委員會
(副執行長)
網址及協
定服務組
(4)
國際事務
及公共關
係組(3)
技術組
(6)
IP
委員會
小
組代
理
發
放
單
位
工
作
小
組
IPV
網域名稱
服務組
2002/02/26 (4)
網委
路員
安會
全
IXTF
稱中
技文
術網
小域
組名
執行長
IP
制爭
研議
擬處
小理
組機
國委
際員
事會
務
董事19人
監事5人
6
工
作
小
組
行政組
(4)
29
網域名稱爭議案例現況
編號
爭議申訴起始日 網域名稱
爭議處理機構
現況
1
90.06.29
m-ms.com.tw
STLC
移轉
2
90.07.27
boss.com.tw
STLC
駁回
3
90.08.02
loreal.com.tw
TBA
撤銷
4
90.08.10
decathlon.com.tw
STLC
駁回
5
90.08.24
cesar.com.tw
STLC
駁回
6
90.09.20
skii.com.tw
STLC
移轉(上訴中)
7
90.10.19
Michelin.com.tw
STLC
移轉
8
90.11.05
Ups.com.tw
STLC
移轉
9
90.12.05
Cashpia.com.tw
STLC
Pending
10
90.12.10
Autento.com.tw
STLC
駁回
11
90.12.11
Mcdonald.com.tw
STLC
Pending
12
90.12.11
麥當勞.商業.tw
STLC
Pending
13
90.12.11
麥當勞.tw
STLC
Pending
14
90.12.26
Playstation.com.tw
STLC
pending
2002/02/26 (資料截止日期2002年1月16日)
30
TWNIC and Internet Organization
2002/02/26
31
What is ICANN ?
The Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN)






2002/02/26
A technical coordination body for the Internet
Non-profit, private-sector corporation (created in Oct.
1998)
Internet Domain Names
IP address numbers
Protocol parameter and port numbers
ICANN coordinates the stable operation of the
Internet’s root server system.
33
History of ICANN
1970s :ARPAnet
IANA (Internet Assigned Number Authority)
RFC (Request for Comment)
1980s : NSF (NSFnet) / US Government
Domain Names
1990s :Commercial Service
Internationalization
NICs
TLDs
Root Servers
1998/10 : ICANN
2002/02/26
34
History of ICANN

Before ICANN : The Internet Society (ISOC)
Creation(1992): to serve as the institutional home for
standards bodies

Draft-Postel(1996) : a proposal that ISOC assume
responsibility for technical coordination rejected

IAHC( International Ad Hoc Committee) plan(1997) :
ISOC shared authority with WIPO, ITU and other groups
rejected by US government

Attempts to institutionalized the technical coordination
functions included a mass membership component.
2002/02/26
35
Government Initiatives (US Government)
1998. 2
Green Paper
1998. 6
White Paper
1998. 10
ICANN Board
1998. 11
ICANN Bylaws
Agreement with US Government (NTIA/DOC)
(National Telecommunications and Information Administration)
=> Self-Governance, Self-Regulation
(International) ??
2002/02/26
36
Green Paper and White Paper




2002/02/26
Ensure DNS stability (paramount)
Promote competition
Promote participation, openness and
transparency
Promote diversity
37
ICANN and the USG

Memorandum of Understanding


Joint ICANN-USG project
Manage transition to





Checklist of tasks
IANA Agreement



2002/02/26
USG --> International
USG --> Private
USG --> Not-for-profit public interest
Continue management of IANA functions
USG --> ICANN for financial responsibility
Names, numbers, and protocol parameters and
Improvements to Root Name Server System
38
ICANN-USG MOU Checklist


Contribute technical advice and expertise on private-sector
management.
Implement procedures











2002/02/26
Reconsideration process
Independent review process
Uniform dispute resolution process for gTLDs
Introduce competition in domain name registration services for
gTLDs
Establish DNS Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC)
Facilitate global participation in the formulation of policies
Develop appropriate membership and participation mechanisms
Launch new gTLDs
Implement address registry (RIR) agreements
Implement root server agreements
Implement ccTLD agreements
39
2002/02/26
40
Domain Name Support Organization (DNSO)
1998.10
1998.11
1999. 1
1999. 2
1999. 3
1999. 3
1999. 5
Barcelona Meeting
www.dnso.icann.org
Monterrey Meeting
Washington Meeting
Paris Meeting
Singapore Meeting
ICANN Bylaws Modification to Accept SOs
DNSO Formation, Names Council, General Assembly
7 Constituencies:
ccTLD
gTLD
ISP
Registrar
2002/02/26
Commercial /Business
Intellectual Property
Non-Commercial
41
DNSO - Working Group and Committees
WG - A
WG - B
WG - C
Committee - D
Committee - E
Dispute Resolution Policy
Famous and Well-known
New gTLD
Business Plan including
WG Procedure
Global Awareness and Outreach
Who Are Individual Members of DNSO?
Consists of all members of all DNSO
and its Constituency mailing lists.
2002/02/26
42
Address Support Organization (ASO)
www.aso.icann.org
Accepted in August 1999 with Regional Internet
Registries (RIR) as Members.
APNIC, ARIN, RIPE NCC
(AFNIC), (LACNIC)
First General Assembly (Open Forum) in August 1999
www.ripe.net www.apnic.net www.arin.net
2002/02/26
43
Protocol Support Organization (PSO)
www.pso.icann.org
Accepted in May 1999 with the following members.
•Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF/IAB)
•World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
•International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
•European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
First General Assembly (Open Forum) in July 1999
2002/02/26
44
ICANN At Large Membership
 What Are Individual Members at ICANN?
Final Total of Activated At Large Members: 76,183 (Date:
10/10/2000 23:59 UTC/GMT)
Africa (315), Asia and Pacific(38,246), Europe(23,442),
Latin America and the Caribbean(3,548),
North America(10,632)
Election by voting: add 5 Board of Directors
2002/02/26
45
19 ICANN Board of Directors






DNSO: Amadeu Abril I Abril, Jonathan Cohen,
Alejandro Pisanty
ASO: Robert Blokzijl, Ken Fockler, Sang-Hyun Kyung
PSO: Vinton G. Cerf (Chairman), Philip Davidson,
Helmut Schink
At Large: Nii Quaynor, Masanobu Katoh, Karl Auerbach,
Ivan Moura Campos, Andy Mueller-Maguhn,
Initial : Frank Fitzsimmons(initial),
Hans Kraaijenbrink(initial),
Jun Murai(initial),
Linda S. Wilson(initial),
Stuart Lynn (CEO)
2002/02/26
46
ICANN and Root NS Operators

Root Name Server System Advisory Committee


All root server operators plus and including ICANN
RSSAC advises ICANN Board on



Operational issue
Security considerations
Number, location, and distribution
 ICANN’s Role
 Oversees and coordinates
 But does not operate
 Except for L-root
 ICANN responsible for the Authoritative Root Zone
 Stably and securely
 Transfer of Authoritative Update Function to ICANN
2002/02/26
47
ICANN and ccTLDs
ccTLD Managers Today
Users
Gov
IP
Businesses
NGOs
Trustee
Organization
Telcos
ISPs
•Policy development
•Participation
•Management
Overview
Universities
Consumers
Operational
Organization
Day-to-day Operations
•Registrations
•Disputes
•Invoicing
•Registrars
•PR
2002/02/26
ASO
49
Global vs Local Policies
Local policy
•Structure second level
domains and beyond
•Who can register
•Price
•Dispute policy
•Prohibited names
•Marketing channels
Local Internet
Community
Local policy
Organized by the
ccTLD Manager
2002/02/26
ccTLD
manager
Global Policy
•Delegation
•Redelegation
•Technical Standards
•Interoperability
•…
Global Internet
Community
Global Policy
Organized by ICANN
50
Trusteeship (ICANN)

RFC 1591 (Jon Postel)



These designated authorities [ccTLDs] are trustees for the
delegated domain, and have a duty to serve the community.
ICP-1

2002/02/26
Concerns about “rights” and “ownership” of domains are
inappropriate. It is appropriate to be concerned about
“responsibilities” and “service” to the community.
Documents IANA policies and practices as of ICANN’s
formation
51
Trusteeship (Governments)

GAC Principles

2002/02/26
“The delegee of a ccTLD is a trustee for the
delegated domain, and has a duty to serve the
residents of the relevant country or territory in the
context of ISO 3166-1, as well as the global Internet
community … Its policy role should be distinguished
from the management, administration and marketing
of the ccTLD. These functions may be performed by
the same or different entities. However the delegation
itself cannot be sub-contracted, sub-licensed or
otherwise traded without the agreement of the
relevant government or public authority and ICANN."
(4.1, GAC Principles)
52
Trusteeship (ccTLDs)
ccTLD Constituency Best Practices Guidelines



A ccTLD manager is a trustee for the delegated
domain, and has a duty to serve the community it
represents as well as the global Internet community.
Concerns about rights and ownership …..(Postel
quote)
CENTR Best Practices (Duties of ccTLD Managers):

2002/02/26
The primary duty of the ccTLD Manager is one of
Public Service, and to manage and operate the
ccTLD Registry in the interest of and in consultation
with the Local Internet Community. ccTLD Managers
are entrusted with the management of the TLD
Registry. A ccTLD Manager has no interest in the
intellectual or other property rights in names
registered as domain names or as part of domain
names.
53
IANA Functions & Services --> ccTLDs

IANA Services to ccTLDS




Commitment to Service Improvement






2002/02/26
Maintains the Authoritative Root Zone File
Process requests for changes
Monitor, enforce and execute global policies
Partnership
Service understandings and goals
Reporting and Statistics
Documentation of processes
Continuous improvement
Advisory structure
54
IANA Functions --> Root Ops

Coordination with Root Name Server Operators








Agreements (MOUs)
RSSAC
Self-policing
Location, number etc
Completion of CRADA Report
Operate root zone distribution master (future)
Monitoring program (under discussion)
Hardening of ICANN operations (subject to
funding)
2002/02/26
55
ICANN Funding

ICANN’s budget defined by community

Advisory structure



Registries contribute



By agreement or voluntarily
Equitable scale
Based on ICANN's total funding requirements


2002/02/26
Budget group
Finance committee
Including reserves
Developed by consensus
56
ICANN-ccTLDs Agreement Framework

Why agreements?

To formalize and institutionalize existing
relationships




2002/02/26
Reflect agreed principles
Make relationships stable and transparent
Advance MOU transition
Contracts vs understandings
57
ccTLD Agreements
(1) Legacy situation:
The IANA monitors the trust locally and
globally No government involvement
(2) Trilateral situation:
The national government, where interested,
responsibly monitors the local interest;
ICANN monitors the global interest
Legacy ----------------Trilateral
Intermediate
2002/02/26
58
Trilateral agreement of
ccTLD delegation of .tw
.tw delegation
1989
InterNic
/IANA
TANet
Ministry of Education
Computer Center
Computer Society
of R.O.C.
(TWNIC)
ICANN Draft
Letter’s Query
Government
Admin. Contact Transfer
Tech. Contact Transfer
Agree to ICANN’s Query
Letter (Gov. Recongizes
TWNIC as .tw admin)??
Agreement??
Contract??
TWNIC
Letter to ICANN requests formal delegation
1999---Now
ICANN
Formal Agreement
2002/02/26
59
What is ICANN-GAC ?
http://www.icann.org/committees/gac/
ICANN and Governments

Governments

One of stakeholders in ICANN


Promotes and protects





Public interest
Commerce, consumers, individuals, etc.
Last resort for concerned institutions, individuals etc
Governments will step in if necessary
ICANN’s Government Advisory Committee
(GAC)

2002/02/26
Global and national Internet community
Stakeholder representative
61
ICANN-GAC
Mission:
Provide advice to ICANN on issues of public policy
ICANN's activities and policies as they relate to the
concerns of governments, particularly in matters where
there may be an interaction between ICANN's policies and
national laws or international agreements.
Meetings: three or four times a year
in conjunction with ICANN meetings.
2002/02/26
62
ICANN-GAC
Membership: open to all national governments, distinct
economies as recognized in international fora,
and multinational governmental organisations
and treaty organisations.
Members: 70 members (about 30 are active)
Meeting communiqués: Issues after its meeting to report
its activities and recommendations
2002/02/26
63
The Issues GAC concerned:
• Selecting new generic top level domains;
• Development of multilingual domain names including
intellectual property protection, consumer protection, and
cultural issues;
• Domain name testbed environments
• Principles for the sound management and administration of
ccTLDs, including the development of the GAC document:
(1) Principles for Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs
(2) Staff Request for Advice of GAC on Definition of Geographic
Regions
(3) Commentary on the Names Council Resolution (.info country names)
• Others
2002/02/26
64
What is IETF?
http://www.ietf.org/
Internet Engineering Task Force
IETF is a loosely self-organized group of people who
contribute to the engineering and evolution of Internet
technologies. It is the principal body engaged in the
development of new Internet standard specifications. The
IETF is unusual in that it exists as a collection of happenings,
but is not a corporation and has no board of directors, no
members, and no dues.
RFC 3160: The Tao of IETF:
A Novice's Guide to the Internet Engineering Task Force
2002/02/26
66
Internet Engineering Task Force
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2002/02/26
3 IETF meeting per year
More than 2000 participants
WG Mailing lists
Registration fee
voluntary helper
Participation oriented
RFC Documents and Internet Drafts
Approval procedures
WGIESGIABRFC Editor
67
IETF Operational Structure
ISOC
IAB
ICANN
RFC Editor
IESG
Area-1
Area-2
X-WG
BOF
2002/02/26
A-WG
BOF
B-WG
C-WG
BOF
IANA
Area-3 ….. 8 Areas
Y-WG
BOF
……. 133 WG
1. Applications (APP) 2. General (GEN)
3. Internet (INT)
4. Operations and Management (OPS)
5. Routing (RTG)
6. Security (SEC)
7. Transport (TSV)
8. User Services (USV)
68
APNIC and APRICOT
TWNIC 左玉苓
What is APNIC ?
Asia Pacific Network Information Center
APNIC -- Overview


2002/02/26
What is APNIC?
 Role
 Structure
What Does APNIC do ?
71
What is APNIC ?

Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for the Asia Pacific Region
 Regional authority for Internet Resource distribution
 IP addresses(IPv4 and IPv6), AS numbers, in-addr.arpa delegation
 Established 1993 in Tokyo, Japan
 Relocated to Brisbane, Australia in 1998

Industry self-regulatory body
 Non-profit, consensus-based, neutral, independent
 Open membership-based structure
 Open and transparent


2002/02/26
Not: an operations forum nor network operator
Not: a standards development body
72
What is APNIC ?
APNIC Mission Statement...
“Addressing the challenge of
responsible Internet resource
distribution in
the Asia Pacific region.”
2002/02/26
73
Internet Registry Hierarchy
ICANN
ASO
(and Address Council)
APNIC
Brisbane, Australia
LIR
LIR
LIR
2002/02/26
ARIN
Reston, VA, US
NIR
LIR
IANA
Marina del Rey, CA, US
LIR
ISP
ISP
RIPE-NCC
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
ISP
ISP
LIR
LIR
LIR
LIR
LIR
ISP
74
APNIC Region
2002/02/26
75
APNIC Organization Structure
-
APNIC Membership
(669 members*)
-
Executive Council
(7 members)
-
Director General
-
-
-
Executive Asst
Tech Services
Department
Tech Services
Manager
Sys Admin
Policy & Analysis
Department
Policy Liaison
Manager
Policy Officer
Jr.Sys Admin
Programmer
Member Services
Department
Resource Servcs
Manager
IR Analyst
Administration
Department
Communications
Department
Finance / Acct
Manager
Acctnt/Bkkeeper
Training Manager
IR Analyst
Documentation
Manager
Programmer
IR Analyst
Comms Program
Manager
Office HR
Manager
IR Analyst
Programmer
Tech Editor
IR Analyst
DB Admin
Web Designer
IR Analyst
Admin Assistant
Events
Coordinator
* Last update 18th July 2001
2002/02/26
76
Where are APNIC Members
1/11/2001
AP
AU
BD
CN
HK
ID
IN
JP
LK
MY
NZ
PH
PK
SG
TH
TW
Other
1/1/2001
1/1/2000
1/1/1999
1/1/1998
1/1/1997
0
2002/02/26
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
77
What does APNIC do?

Internet resource management



Resource registration


Authoritative registration server: whois
DNS management


2002/02/26
IP address allocation and assignment
AS number assignments
Reverse domains: in-addr.arpa
Not: Domain name (DNS) registration
78
What else does APNIC do?

Policy development



Training and Seminars



Open Policy Meeting: SIGs, WGs, BOFs
Mailing list discussions
2 training courses per month in 2002
Seminars with AP Outreach
Publication & Information


2002/02/26
Newsletter, web and ftp site
Joint RIR statistics
79
What else does APNIC do?

Co-ordination & Representation

Extensive liaison with development, industry
communities


Asia Pacific peak bodies in Internet industry
technology policy and law


APNG, APIA, APAN, APTLD, APRICOT
Other RIRs and ICANN


2002/02/26
IETF, IEPG, IPv6 Directorate, GSM-A, IPv6 Forum, ISOC
ARIN, RIPE-NCC, LACNIC, AFRINIC
ICANN, IANA AND ASO
80
What is APRICOT ?
Asia Pacific Regional Internet Conference on
Operational Technology
APRICOT -- Overview






2002/02/26
What is APRICOT
APRICOT Meeting Structure
Who Attends APRICOT
APRICOT Principle
Past APRICOT
APRICOT 2002 & 2003
82
What is APRICOT ?


Educational forum for Internet builders in
the region since 1996.
Asia Pacific’s premier regional Internet
Summit - related organizations meet and host
annual general meetings





2002/02/26
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Pacific Network Information Centre
& Pacific Internet Association
Pacific Networking Group
Pacific Policy and Legal Forum
Pacific Top-Level Domain Forum
(www.apnic.net)
(www.apia.org)
(www.apng.org)
(www.apng.org/apple)
(www.aptld.org) etc.
83
APRICOT Meeting Structure
Tutorials 6-8 Tutorials Per Day over 2 days
Conference 3 Track Conference over 3 days


Birds-Of-A-Feather Meetings Daily Evening
Meetings
AP* Meetings
Throughout the Week
Social Activities






2002/02/26
Opening Reception
Lunches
Closing Social
84
Who Attend ARPICOT ?

Individuals who directly impact the
operational deployment and stability of
Internet protocol (IP)-based networks and
services




2002/02/26
network operators
engineers
senior executives
regulators
85
APRICOT Principle

A neutral educational forum on




Skills
Policies
Technologies
One-year technology horizon
2002/02/26
86
Past APRICOT Meetings
Year
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Singapore
Hong
Kong
Philippine
Singapore
S.Korea
Malaysia
No. of Attendees
280
630
320
632
850
888
No. of Countries
Represented
18
25
24
25
36
31
No. of Sponsors
10
27
18
19
37
32
-
318,031
255,576
131,098.9
364,823
238,978
Host Economy
Expenditure (USD)
2002/02/26
87
ARPICOT 2002



Bangkok, Thailand
Feb. 27 – March 7
URL:http:www.apricot2002.net
2002/02/26
88
APRICOT 2003


Feb 24 – 28
Bidding cities:




Beijing
Jakarta
Taipei
Bidding presentation scheduled on March
2 in BKK.
2002/02/26
89
Taipei for APRICOT 2003
2002/02/26
90
ICANN At-Large and ISOC
TWNIC 李曉陽
At-Large Member
甚麼是At-Large Member(一般會員)?
•
2002/02/26
ICANN為何要考慮到所謂的一般會員?
(一)網路民主精神
(二)Stakeholders的完整考量
(三)ICANN能消弭決策權不均批評
92
At-Large Member
At-Large Study Committee的成立


建議成立 At-Large Supporting
Organization (ALSO)鼓勵一般會員參與
ICANN
問題:
誰具有At-Large(即一般會員)的身份?
2002/02/26
93
At-Large Member
誰具At-Large(即一般會員)的資格


2002/02/26
ALSC提出所謂的Individual Domain
Name holder
此項提議在ICANN會議內遭受到正反兩
面不同論點之討論
94
ALSC 對At-Large之定義




2002/02/26
ALSC對於一般會員所應符合的標準,提出
以下三點建議:
(一)對ICANN活動具有既有之相關利益
(二)一個確認身份的合理方式
(三)支付會費的機制
95
地方分權(Decentralized)





2002/02/26
建議中的ALSO是全球性的組織
強調地方及區域性的架構下,讓各個不同
地區的會員能夠有充份的意見表達
促使ICANN的政策決議,能夠考量世界不
同地區所衍生出不同的議題
屬於地方分權式,以區域為基礎的結構
Example: AP At-Large
96
ISOC & 台灣網路At-Large






2002/02/26
Internet Society (ISOC)
組織結構
任務宗旨
分會(Chapter) 組織之國際性任務推展
台灣分會(ISOC-Taiwan Chapter)-成立於
1996年
ISOC-Taiwan Chapter in Formation
97
Membership by Region
Region
Number of
Countries w/
Membership
* Paid
Average
Membership number of mbrs
Total
per country
Dues
Total
Average
Dues per
Country
Average
Dues per
Member
Africa
31
495
16
$
5,870
$
189
$
12
As ia, East & South Eas t
13
366
28
$ 13,105
$
1,008
$
36
Asia, South
5
93
19
$
1,060
$
212
$
11
Caribbean
6
7
1
$
380
$
63
$
54
CEE & Russia
16
236
15
$
2,560
$
160
$
11
Central Asia
4
9
2
$
135
$
34
$
15
Latin America
6
55
9
$
2,125
$
354
$
39
Middle East
11
358
33
$ 12,015
$
1,092
$
34
North America
2
1543
772
$ 72,470
$
36,235
$
47
Pacific
19
133
7
$
3,510
$
185
$
26
South America
12
135
11
$
4,560
$
380
$
34
Western Europe
22
1783
81
$ 68,290
$
3,104
$
38
TOTALS
147
5213
35
$ 186,080
$
1,266
$
36
* Paid Membership total excludes 554 individuals who receive
complimentary membership through Organization Membership
in ISOC.
2002/02/26
Board of Trustees Meeting - December 2001
98
Regional Membership Percentages
Africa
9%
Asia, East & South
East
7%
Asia, South
2%
Caribbean
0%
Western Europe
33%
CEE & Russia
5%
Central Asia
0%
Latin America
1%
South America
3%
Pacific
3%
2002/02/26
North America
30%
Middle East
7%
Board of Trustees Meeting - December 2001
99
台灣網路At-Large




2002/02/26
未來台灣At-Large推動計劃
完成恢復ISOC-Taiwan Chapter會籍
ISOC Global Membership
鼓勵台灣網路使用者踴躍參加
結合台灣網路社群意見,作為TWNIC制定
政策時的重要參考
100
訊息連結




2002/02/26
http://www.atlargestudy.org (At-Large)
http://www.isoc.org (ISOC)
http://www.twnic.net.tw (TWNIC)
http://www.myhome.net.tw (My Home
in .tw)
101
AP Related Internet Org
TWNIC 王昱文
AP*’s Comprehensive Range of
Primary Sphere of Activities













Industry, e-Business and e-Commerce
APIA
Legal and Policy, Governance and Management
APPLe
Research and Academic, Founder status
APNG, APAN, AI3
Advanced Networking
APAN, AI3
Internet Domain Names
APTLD, MINC
Internet IPv4/IPv6/AS Numbers
APNIC
Developing Countries
APDIP, PAN/ IDRC
Conference, Education and Training
APRICOT
Operations
APOPS
Security
APSIRC
Administration and Coordination
AP Joint Secretariat,
AP* Retreat Secretariat
Language-specific
INFITT
Discipline-specific Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet)
Asia Pacific Association for Medical Informatics
2002/02/26
103
APNG





全名:AP Networking Group
The grandpa(阿公) of Internet org in
AP: APNIC, APTLD, APIA, APRICOT…etc.
轉型為分享教育機制
現任主席:李星(中國CERNET副主任)
2/28, 3/1 APNG Next Generation Camp in
BKK, Thailand
2002/02/26
104
APIA




全名:AP Internet Association
創於1997, is a trade association whose
aim is to promote the business interests of
the Internet-related service industry in the
Asia Pacific region ---目前,轉型中
Hotta-san, Ms. Kyoko Day為主要負責成員
3/4 APIA AGM and Open Forum in BKK,
Thainland---Internet Country Status
Report
2002/02/26
105
AP star






亞太區網路組織的集合
預設為各組織的聯絡中心及訊息交換中心
位於曼谷的亞洲理工(AIT)
由 AIT的Dr. Kanchana主持
基金來自於日本
3/2 集合亞太區相關組織於AIT開會
2002/02/26
106
APTLD




AP Top-level Domain Forum
亞太區Domain Name,DNS, NIC相關議題
十二個會員:包括亞太區主要地區及國家:
我國.tw,中.cn,日.jp,韓.kr,紐.nz,
澳.au,馬.my,泰.th,新.sg,Nuie(.nu),
港.hk,越.vn
持續增加會員中--東帝文.tp,土瓦魯.tv..等
2002/02/26
107
APTLD Board








Hualin Qian/.cn
Peter Dengate-Thrush/.nz Senior
Bill Semich/.nu
(Treasurer)
Shuichi Tashiro/.jp
(Membership)
Kwan Ho Song/.kr
Vincent W.S. Chen/.tw
Kanchana Kanchanasut/.th
Ramesh Kumar Nadarajah/.my
2002/02/26
Chair
Vice chair
Vice chair
Vice Chair
Secretariat
108
APTLD Secretariat in Taiwan




Most members selected TWNIC to host
the secretariat in Taiwan
Principle: Best and Fast
Host 8 international meetings after Oct.
2000
The bridge of AP
2002/02/26
109
Issues




(1) ICANN & ccTLD Contract: the first 2
agreements are from APTLD
members: .au and .jp
(2) ccSO in ICANN:
(3) IDN: APTLD participates in the IDN
process of IETF and ICANN IDN
committee
(4) Educational programs
2002/02/26
110
Participants from Taiwan
ICANN At Large Committee Member: Ching-Yi Liu (TWNIC, NCU)
ICANN IDN Committee Member : Vincent WS Chen (TWNIC)
APNIC Executive Council : Kuo-Wei Wu (TWNIC, Acer Group)
ASO Address Council : Kenny Huang (TWNIC, Asiainfra/SINICA)
APTLD board member: Vincent WS Chen (TWNIC)
APTLD Secretariat: TWNIC
APAN Taiwan: 莊主任哲男 (NCHC), 林主任誠謙(SINICA CC)
ICANN At Large Election: 姜國輝(NCCU)、Kuo-Wei Wu (TWNIC, Acer Group)
ICANN DNSO-NCDHC: MOECC, NCHC, Sinica
ICANN GAC: DGT, MOFA…..
IETF IDN WG: SINICA, NCU, TWNIC….
IETF xxWG : ITRI, III…….
WIPO xxWG: IPO, III, NCU, NTU, TWNIC……
ITU-T : DGT, CHT, TWNIC…….
2002/02/26
111
近期發展



過去亞太區網路組織著重於由少數先進國
家的實驗計畫,及對發展中國家的有選擇
性的技術教育
Internet商業化和普遍化後,許多缺口要補
足法規、政策、社會、人文藝術。許多努
力,卻始終跟不上日新又新的科技
我們最近的鄰居,亞太區鄰國,我們彼此
瞭解了多少?
2002/02/26
112
參與、學習與分享



參與---才不會脫軌,被自外於被自外於網
路國際中
學習--- 只有增強實力才能生存於現實的國
際環境
分享--- 建立共榮共享的合作伙伴關係
2002/02/26
113

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