Slide 1

Lockyer’s Pyramid
Training Day
Improving Writing through
Quality First Teaching
• 9.00am
• 9.15 – 10.40am
• 10.40 – 11.10am
• 11.10 – 1.15pm
• 1.15 – 2.15pm
• 2.15 – 3.15pm
• 3.15 – 3.30pm
The Big Picture of
Building a Bridge
Between Reading and
Think, pair, share
• What are the greatest challenges you face
in supporting the teaching of reading?
• What skills, knowledge or experience do
you already have that will help you to meet
at least some of these challenges?
The Big Picture of
Teaching sequence for writing
Familiarisation with the
Capturing ideas
Teacher scribing
Guided writing
Independent writing
Independent writing across the
Familiarisation with the text: we want
children to:
• Enjoy and explore a text
• Develop comprehension skills
• Identify elements that may support later
• Develop success criteria for writing
Shared Reading – the role of the teacher
• Immersion
• Navigating the text
• Interacting with the text: text marking,
highlighting, annotation
• Effective questioning leading to inference,
deduction, evaluation, prediction,
visualisation, personal response
• Planned opportunities for pupil interaction:
talking partners, whiteboards
• Planned opportunities for drama
• Leading exploration of key features to
develop top tips
Learning to:
• Navigate
• Skim, scan
• Locate and retrieve
• Engage with and
respond to texts
• Justify preferences
• Empathise
• Interrogate texts
• Respond
Understand, interpret
• Understand
• Identify main events
• Summarise
• Grammatical features
• Writer’s perspective
• Audience and purpose
• Writer’s use of
• Infer and deduce
• Compare
Progression in
The Reading Assessment
• AF1: use a range of strategies to read for meaning
• AF2: understand, describe, select or retrieve
information, events or ideas from texts and use
quotation and reference to the text
• AF3: deduce, infer or interpret information, events or
ideas from texts
• AF4: identify and comment on the structure and
organisation of texts, including grammar and
• AF5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language
(word and sentence level)
• AF6: identify and comment on writers’ purposes and
viewpoints and the overall effect of the text on the
Early Reading
Listening and responding
Playing with sounds
Kinaesthetic activities
Re-enactments of stories
Phonics – Reception and Year 1
Blends and segments CVC words (AF1) L1c/b;
Decodes CVC, CCVC, CVCC. CCVCC words (AF) ;
Reads and identifies vowel digraphs (AF1) 1a ;
Uses contextual and grammatical cues (AF1) 1a;
• Uses expression when reading (AF) 1a.
Key Stage 1
• Recalls main ideas (AF2) L2c;
• Can explain the difference
between fiction and non-fiction (AF4) L2c;
• Enjoys and identifies word play (AF5) L2c;
• Can make and discuss preferences(AF6) L2c;
• Reads almost all HF words (AF1) L2b;
• Can make predictions(AF3) L2b;
• Can identify other books by author (AF7) L2b.
• Can describe a character’s feelings (AF3) L2a;
• Can explain organisation and layout(AF4) L2a;
Key Stage 2
• Uses full range of phonics cues (AF1) L3c;
• Able to use knowledge of text type and
layout to locate information(AF2) L3b;
• Increased ability to explain characters’
feelings and motivations and able to
explain point of view(AF3) L3b;
• Understands purpose of
layout (AF4) L3a;
Key Stage 2 - continued
• Able to say why words and phrases are
effective (AF5) L3a;
• Able to explain author’s point of view
simply (AF6) L4c;
• Able to explain why an author has used a
language device (AF5) L4b;
• Able to explain author’s point of view with
explicit textual reference(AF6) L4a;
• Begins to sample more authors, genres
and cultures and is able to discuss and
compare these (AF7) L4a;
Progression Y6-7
(Taken from Revised Primary Framework)
• Word reading skills and strategies:
Work out meaning of unknown words:
Distinguish between everyday words and their subject specific
• Understanding and interpreting texts: Locate resources for a
specific task; read between the lines and find evidence;
identify how print, images and sounds
combine to make meaning; identify the
way that writers of non-fiction match
language and organisation to their intentions.
Progression Y6-7 (Cont’d)
• Engaging and responding to texts:
Read a range of fiction texts independently as the basis for
developing critical reflection and personal response;
Explore the notion of literary heritages and understand why
some texts have been particularly influential or significant;
Write reflectively about a text, distinguishing between the
attitudes and assumptions of characters and those of the
author and taking account of others who might read it.
Level 5:
AF1:Confidence tackling
unfamiliar and
challenging language;
AF2: Can use substantial
evidence from the text;
AF3: Can read between the
lines and can explain
reasons for inferences
and deductions;
Level 5 (Cont’d)
• AF4: Can understand a range of possible
layouts and text structures in fiction and
• AF5: Can explain the use of figurative
• AF6: Able to explain where
author’s viewpoint may be
• AF7: Can relate texts to
other written/visual/ICT from
other times/cultures.
Key Stage 3: Level 6
• AF2: relevant points clearly identified; commentary
incorporates apt textual reference;
• AF3: Identify different layers of meaning; comments
consider wider implications or significance of information;
• AF4: Detailed exploration of how structural
choices support the writer’s purpose;
• AF5: Some detailed explanation of how language is used;
• AF6: Evidence for identifying main purpose at
word/sentence level; viewpoint and effect on the reader
clearly identified.
Strategies to develop reading comprehension
Activating prior knowledge
Constructing images
Text structure analysis
Semantic strategies
Interpretive strategies
Enabling children to monitor their own
Building the Bridge Between Reading
and Writing
Reading as a Writer
Features of effective teaching
• Make the ‘private’ and ‘silent’ parts of the
writing/reading process ‘public’ and ‘audible’;
• Set up investigational work so that pupils explore
and discuss the features of texts;
• Model the planning and writing process;
• Teach, discuss and allow reflection;
• Let pupils work collaboratively as they develop as
readers and writers;
• Use drama techniques that promote discussion;
Interactive shared
The Wreck of the Zephyr
Reading as A Writer
• He walked for a long time and was
surprised that he didn’t recognise the
shoreline. He climbed a hill, expecting to
see something familiar, but what he saw
instead was a strange and unbelievable
sight. Before him were two boats, sailing
high above the water. Astonished, he
watched them glide by. Then a third sailed
past, towing the Zephyr. The boats entered
a bay that was bordered by a large village.
There they left the Zephyr.
An approach to whole texts
Who is it for?
What is it for?
What effect does it have
on the reader?
How has the writer
achieved that effect?
Using Talk and Drama
Activities to Improve
Improving Literacy Through Talk
“Most learning does not happen suddenly.
We do not one moment fail to understand
something and the next moment grasp it
The boats entered a bay that was
bordered by a large village……
Conscience Corridor
But the boy could not sleep. He knew he
could fly his boat if he had another chance.
He waited until the sailor and his wife were
asleep, then he quietly dressed and went
to the harbour.
What advice would you give the boy at this
point in the story?
Role on the Wall
• What are the main points that we learn from the
man’s tale?
• What questions would you ask the man about
his tale?
Still Images and Spoken Thoughts
• In pairs, create the final image of the story.
• Choose one line from the final paragraphs
as a caption to your freeze frame.
• What are the characters thinking? Speak
their thoughts aloud.
Forum Theatre
“Of course no one believe his story about
flying boats. It was easier for them to
believe that he was lost in the storm and
thrown up here by the waves.”
In threes or fours, improvise a scene where
the boy is telling family or friends about
this experience.
Choose one of the scenes and the rest of
the group directs the action and dialogue
to capture both explicit and implicit themes
in the narrative.
Drama Strategies
Guided tour
Role on the wall
Sculpting the characters
Still images
Describing the space
Placing the text in the drama
Teacher in role
Placing the reader, writer, audience
Drama strategies as a context for
Class Books
Wall stories
Character profiles
Non-chronological reports
Legal documents
• Recounts
• Graffiti
• Different story, same
• Dialogue
• Notes/journals
• Letters
• Rules
• Messages
• Newspapers reports
• Explanations
• Petitions
Assessment Focuses for writing
• AF1: write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful texts (C
• AF2:produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and
purpose (C&E)
• AF3: organise and present whole texts effectively,
sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events
• AF4: construct paragraphs and use some cohesion within
and between linked paragraphs (TSO)
• AF5: vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effect (SSP)
• AF6: write with technical accuracy of syntax in phrases,
clauses and sentences (SSP)
• AF7: select appropriate and effective vocabulary (V&S)
• AF8: spell most simple and common polysyllabic words
accurately (V&S)
Direct teaching of writing
Teacher demonstration (modelling)
Teacher scribing
Supported composition
Guided writing
Independent writing
Examples of Effective Practice
• Shared writing
• Writing partners
• Drama
• Response partners
Shared writing – the role of the teacher
To model being a writer
Apply the learning from the analysis
Scaffold composition
Introduce meta-language
Rehearse, re-read, revise
Make explicit the links between reading and
• Exemplify the whole writing process
• Close focus on target areas
• Planned opportunities for pupil interaction:
talking partners, whiteboards
Teacher demonstration
Modelling narrative writing
Guided Writing
Guided Writing
Providing a bridge
Teacher modelling, scaffolding
Workshop approach
Target groups – ability/need
Plan for:
Tailored approach to meet needs
A teaching and learning focus on next steps
Speaking and listening
A range of working partnerships
Modelling strategies for improvement
Ongoing assessment
Guided writing can take place at any
point in the writing process
• Before writing – to support note-making,
planning, drafting
• At the point of writing – to support and
develop skills of composition
• After writing – feedback sessions during
which self, peer and teacher evaluation
takes place
Guided Writing – the role of the teacher
Direct teaching – modelling
Individual support
Model oral rehearsal before writing
Model the role of response partner
Act as scribe, or filter
Monitor and assess understanding
Opportunity to set and review writing
Independent Writing
Independent Writing
• Explicitly linked to shared work; part of a
staged learning sequence
• Sufficient opportunities
• Sufficient time
• Range of working partnerships
• Opportunities for oral, written rehearsal
• Choice about the form in which to record,
• Clarity about what success looks like
• Successful drafting strategies
• Strategies for independence

similar documents