The Formal Writing Process - tulsasecondarylit

Report
The Formal Writing
Process
Differentiated Lit Session
Objectives & Agenda
• Explain the five steps of the writing process and their
importance.
• Guide students through these steps.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
Introduction to Formal Writing
Pre-Writing
- Brainstorming
- Using Mentor Texts
Drafting
Revising
Proofreading
Publishing
Session Closing
What is Formal Writing?
• Formal Writing
• Extended written compositions that carry students through all
the steps in the writing process
• Classic examples: book report, research paper, lab report
• Informal Writing
• Short, quick daily lesson assignments to process new information
• Does not carry students through all the steps in the writing
process
Table Talk:
When would you use formal writing in your classroom?
So, when would you use it?
• Why is this the kind of assignment that should be considered
“formal”? That is, why does it merit the class time needed to
take it through the whole writing process?
• How does this specific assignment push students toward
academic success and a better life path?
Key Ideas
• Formal writing uses a 5-step process:
•
•
•
•
•
Pre-writing
Drafting
Revising
Proofreading and Editing
Publishing and Presentation
• Each stage of the formal process needs
to be explicitly taught and modeled by
the teacher.
Pre-Writing: Brainstorming
• The “discovery” and “rehearsal” stage
• “Most writing occurs before the pen even hits the paper.”
• Do not take for granted that students will follow these steps
naturally
• Must be explicitly taught before creation begins
How?
•
•
•
•
•
Free Write/Trigger Words
Personal Reflection
Concept Webs
Research Hunt
Outlines
Do Now
• Write in sentences the first story or thought that
comes to mind when I say…
• Monday morning
• Consequences
• Pride
Pre-Writing: Mentor Texts
• Better Readers = Better Writers
• Students must be exposed to examples of good writing and
varied techniques.
• Students will internalize these and put their own spin on
writing styles and techniques.
Mentor Texts
• Three ways to use mentor texts:
IMITATE
Mimic stories,
only small
changes.
INVENT
Draw on texts and
structures they have
Internalized.
INNOVATE
Use basic
structure with big
changes.
Mentor Text: “Where I’m From”
ELA Teachers: Poem
Science Teachers: Lab Report
• What would you want your students to take away from this
piece of writing (in terms of text structures, patterns, style,
language use, etc.)?
• Descriptive language: ratio of nouns to adjectives
• Use of metaphors
• Imagery: Appealing to the senses
Drafting
• Students transform (incoherent) brainstorm ideas into
(coherent) paragraphs.
• Often students need the most support during this step. Do as
much in class as possible.
How?
• Give students a clear map of what they need
to include and where it belongs.
• Encourage students to keep momentum
going – might instruct them to skip a
sentence or paragraph if having difficulty
Revising
• Students make BIG changes to their writing draft by adding,
removing, or rearranging parts.
• Focus is on ideas, content, and style of writing.
• YOU can determine how to firmly guide students through the
process – an excellent place for mini-lessons.
•
•
•
•
Transition words
Hooks in introductions
Onomatopoeia
Using dialogue effectively
Revising & the Lesson Cycle
Peer Review Checklist
-How can I strengthen my opening
to involve the reader?
-What details can I add to help
explain what I’m trying to say?
-Which paragraph stands out from
the rest?
-What research do I still need to
do? Where do I not have enough
evidence?
What would be a more appropriate
ending?
What might be a good independent practice or lesson assessment for a
revising mini-lesson?
Proofreading & Editing
• Students refine their work to make it appear more
professional, following standards of grammar, etc.
• Focus on mechanics.
• Generally, these changes are “small” and do not require
drastic rewrites of the whole paper.
How?
• Mini-lessons on mechanics
• Introduce models or mentors for particular
types of sentences
• Peer Editing: Analog & Digital Clocking
Analog & Digital Clocking
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Capitalization
End punctuation
Dialogue – correct use of apostrophes
Dialogue – start new paragraph every time
It’s vs. its
They’re, their, there
You’re vs. your
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
Publishing & Presentation
• Allows students to share their best work with others
• Brainstorm some examples!
Why? What are the benefits of providing opportunities for
presentation?
Tracking the Writing Process
Closing
• Formal writing process needs to be explicitly taught and
modeled by the teacher.
• Questions or Resources?
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