THEORIES, MODELS, AND FRAMEWORKS

Report
GROUP 7
THEORIES, MODELS, AND FRAMEWORKS
DEFINITIONS

Informatics – science that combines:
 domain
science
 computer science
 information science
 cognitive science
– multidisciplinary science drawing from
various theories and knowledge applications
DEFINITIONS

Healthcare informatics – integration of:
 healthcare
sciences
 computer science
 information science
 cognitive science
to assist in the management of healthcare
information
– subdiscipline of
informatics
HEALTHCARE INFORMATICS
MEDICAL
INFORMATICS
DENTAL
INFORMATICS
NURSING
INFORMATICS
PHARMACY
INFORMATICS
DEFINITIONS

Nursing Informatics – use of information
technologies in relation to any nursing
functions and actions of nurses (Hannah,
1985)
DEFINITIONS

Nursing Informatics – combination of:
 computer
science
 information science
 nursing science
designed to assist in the management and
processing of nursing data, information
and knowledge to support the practice of
nursing and delivery of nursing care
(Graves and Corcoran, 1989)
DEFINITIONS

Nursing Informatics – specialty that integrates:
 nursing
science
 computer science
 information science
in identifying, collecting, processing, and
managing data and information to support
nursing practice, administration, education,
research and the expansion of nursing
knowledge (ANA, 1994)
NURSING INFORMATICS AS A SPECIALTY
In early 1992, the ANA (American Nursing
Association) established nursing informatics
with a distinct specialty in nursing w/ a distinct
body of knowledge.
The scope of nursing informatics practice
includes activities such as developing and
evaluating applications, tools, processes and
strategies that assist RNs in managing data to
support decision-making.
NURSING INFORMATICS AS A SPECIALTY
The core phenomena of nursing are:
 the
nurse
 the patient
 health
 environment
NI is interested in these core phenomena,
aside from data, knowledge, information,
information structures and technologies.
MODELS FOR NURSING INFORMATICS
Graves and Corcoran – placed data,
information, and knowledge in sequential
boxes
 Patricia Schwirian – provided a framework for
identifying significant information needs, which
in turn can foster research
 Turley – the core components of informatics
(cognitive science, information science and
computer science) are depicted as intersecting
circles

DATA
MANAGEMENT
GRAVES &
CORCORAN’S
MODEL
INFORMATION
KNOWLEDGE
GOAL
USERS
TECHNOLOGY
RAW MATERIALS
SCHWIRIAN’S
MODEL
TURNER’S
MODEL
INFORMATION
SCIENCE
COGNITIVE
SCIENCE
COMPUTER
SCIENCE
NURSING SCIENCE
COMPLEXITY
DATA, INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE
KNOWLEDGE
INFORMATION
DATA
HUMAN INTELLECT
DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE
Data – discrete entities that are described
objectively w/out interpretation
– include some value assigned to a
variable
 Information – reflects interpretation,
organization or structuring of data
– result of processing of data
(which occurs when raw facts are transformed
through the application of context to give
meaning)

DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge – emerges from the transformation
of information
– information synthesized so that
relationships are identified and formalized
The processing of information doesn’t always result in
the development of knowledge. Further, knowledge is
necessary to the processing of data and information.
Knowledge itself may be processed to generate
decisions and new knowledge.
ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD
This is any information related to the past,
present, and future physical/mental health, or
condition of an individual. It resides in electronic
systems used to capture, transmit, receive, store,
retrieve, link, and manipulate multimedia data for
the primary purpose of providing healthcare and
health-related services. (ASTM)
ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD
– encompasses the entire scope of health
information in all media forms
– primary source for information about a client;
the place where client information is recorded or
documented
TERMINOLOGY
DEFINITION
ANA RECOGNITION
NANDA-I
conceptual system that
guides classifications of
nursing diagnoses
1992
Nursing Interventions
Classification (NIC)
contains 514 nursing
interventions
1992
Clinical Care Classification
(CCC)
research-based
nomenclature designed to
standardize terminologies for
documenting care in all
settings
1992
Omaha System
includes assessment,
intervention and outcome
components
1992
Nursing Outcomes
Classification (NOC)
has 330 research-based
outcomes to provide
standardization of expected
outcomes
1997
TERMINOLOGY
DEFINITION
ANA RECOGNITION
Nursing Management
Minimum Data Set (NMMDS)
includes terms to describe
the context and environment
of nursing practice
1998
Patient Care Data Set (PCDS)
includes codes for patient
problems, therapeutic goals
and patient care orders
Perioperative Nursing Data
Set (PNDS)
provides a universal
language for perioperative
nursing practice and
education and a framework
to standardize
documentation
1998
1999
SNOMED CT
a core clinical terminology
containing over 357,000
healthcare concepts w/
unique meanings and formal
logic-based definitions
1999, 2003
TERMINOLOGY
DEFINITION
ANA RECOGNITION
Nursing Minimum Data Set
(NMDS)
contains 16 data elements
divided into patient, service,
and nursing care elements
1999
International Classification
for Nursing Practice (ICNP)
combinatorial terminology for
nursing practice including
nursing diagnosis, actions
and outcomes
2000
ABC Codes
provide a mechanism for
coding integrative health
interventions
2000
Logical Observation
Identifiers Names and Codes
(LOINC)
database for standardized
laboratory terms
2002

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