Rules for Naming Organisms - Mrs. Fox's Biology Website

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Rules for Naming Organisms
• The International Code for
Binomial Nomenclature contains
•
•
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the rules for naming organisms
All names must be approved by
International Naming Congresses
(International Zoological
Congress)
This prevents duplicated names
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Classification Groups
• Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a
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category into which related
organisms are placed
There is a hierarchy of groups
(taxa) from broadest to most
specific
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class,
Order, Family, Genus, species
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Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups
BROADEST TAXON
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum (Division – used for plants)
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Most
Specific
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Dumb
King
Phillip
Came
Over
For
Gooseberry
Soup!
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Basis for Modern Taxonomy
•Homologous structures (same
structure, different
function)
Similar embryo development
Molecular Similarity in DNA,
RNA, or amino acid sequence
of Proteins
•
•
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Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows
Similarities in mammals.
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Similarities in Vertebrate
Embryos
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Cladogram
Diagram showing how organisms are related
based on shared, derived characteristics
such as feathers, hair, or scales
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Primate
Cladogram
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Dichotomous Keying
•Used to identify organisms
•Characteristics given in
pairs
•Read both characteristics
and either go to another
set of characteristics OR
identify the organism
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Example of Dichotomous Key
1a
1b
2a
2b
3a
3b
4a
4b
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Tentacles present – Go to 2
Tentacles absent – Go to 3
Eight Tentacles – Octopus
More than 8 tentacles – 3
Tentacles hang down – go to 4
Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone
Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish
Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5
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