ASTM F38 - ASTM International

Report
F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
Gap Analysis Lead Author:
F38 Member Laurence Newcome
Supplement
- Gap Analysis in Detail
Recalling Subcommittee Structure:
• F38.01 Airworthiness Standards
• F38.02 Operations Standards
• F38.03 Pilot & Maintenance Qualifications
The Gap Analysis Will
•
•
•
•
provide guidance for standards bodies and user groups engaged in developing
or adopting standards governing unmanned aircraft system design, manufacture,
test, training, operation, and maintenance
preclude duplicating existing standards already applicable to unmanned aviation
identify gaps in standards coverage unique to needs of unmanned aviation
Roadmap Key: ASTM F38 standards in progress - in orange
ASTM approved standards – in yellow
Outstanding needs – in red
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap:
WBS Example Format
Crew Qualifications
Maintainers
Airframe
UAS Operations
Airframe
Airworthiness
Level 2
Airframe
Level 3
Materials
Structures
Landing Gear
Launch Devices
Maintenance
Environmental
General
Level 4
Reciprocating
Ground
Turbine
Structures
Materials
Reciprocating
Landing Gear TaxiGenerators
Launch Devices
Power
Plant Turbine
Avionics
Takeoff
Structures
Launch Devices
Fuels
Generators
Landings
Landing Gear Comm/NAV
Maintenance
Reciprocating
General
Launch Devices
Turbine
Links
Launch DevicesData
Environmental Electric
Fuels
Generators
Maintenance General
General
General
- Batteries
Launch Devices
Electric
Environmental
- Solar
Fuels
General
- Radioisotope
General
- Batteries
- GSE
Electric
- Batteries
ASTM
- Solar
- Radioisotope
Level 5
Materials
Power
Plant
Pilot
Non-Pilot
Schools
Human Factors
- Certificates
- Ratings
Safety
/SA WK5423 Certificates and Ratings Issued for
- ASTM
Solar
- UAV
Radioisotope
Pilots and Operators
- De-Anti-Icing
- Transponders
- See & Avoid
ASTM F2111-04 Standard Specification for Design &
Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
Crew
The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap:
Level 1 - Airworthiness
Airworthiness
Level 2
Airframe
Level 3
Materials
Structures
Landing Gear
Launch Devices
Maintenance
Environmental
General
Reciprocating
Turbine
Generators
Launch Devices
Fuels
General
Electric
- Batteries
- Solar
- Radioisotope
Level 4
Level 5
Power Plant
Avionics
Comm/NAV
Data Links
General
Safety /SA
- De-Anti-Icing
- Transponders
- See & Avoid
ASTM F2111-04 Standard Specification for Design &
Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 – AIRFRAME (under Level 1 Airworthiness)
Materials…………………………..MIL HDBK 5 (metals), 17 (composites)
Structures…………………………MIL-HDBK 1530; MIL-STD 403A
Landing Gear…………………….JIS W2502; FAA TSO-C62d; MIL-T-504; SAE ARP1493A
Wheels/Brakes/Skid Control ARP1595A, ARP1907A, ARP813B, SAE ARP1311B,
Gears/Struts/ Couplings
ARP1598AAIR1494A, AIR4566, SAE AIR5487, AS1188
Tires
Launch Devices…………………. ASTM F2585 Standard Specification for the Design
and Performance of a Pneumatic UAS Launch System
Recovery Devices………………. WK15881 Specification for Design and Performance
of UAS Recovery Systems
Environmental……………………(see next chart) RTCA DO-160C,
• External
MIL HDBK 237
• Internal (Onboard)
General…………………………….14 CFR 21, 23, 25, 27, 29; ASTM F2501-06 Standard
Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System
Airworthiness, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices
for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap:
Level 3/4/5/6 - Environmental
General
External
•
•
•
•
Altitude (TPH)
De-icing/Anti-icing
Rain, ice, lightning, etc.
Salt, fog, dust, etc.
•
Fungus
•
•
EMI, HERO, etc.
Solar weather
SAE ARP147E (terminology), ARP780B (symbols)
MIL-STD 202, 810; RTCA DO-160; NEBS GR-63-CORE
(see Avionics/Safety; SAE AC-9C work)
SAE AIR1168/4, ARP 5577; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160
MIL-STD 820; ASTM B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray
(Fog) Apparatus
ASTM D120 Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves,
D470 Method for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for
Wire and Cable, D518 Method for Rubber DeteriorationSurface Cracking; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160
MIL-STD 461D, 646; SAE ARP1972, ARP5583, ARP5889
JEDEC JESD-89
Internal (Onboard)
•
•
•
•
•
Temperature
Pressure
Humidity
Shock/Vibration/Accel
Acoustic
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SAE AIR64B, AIR89D, AIR1277B, AS8040A
SAE AIR1168/7
SAE AIR1609A, ARP987A
MIL-STD 167, 202, 331 (catapult/arrested landing), 810
SAE AIR1826
The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 - Powerplants
Reciprocating Engines
•
Propellers
Turbines
14 CFR 33, 34, 36; SAE AS25109, AS1B, ASTM
WK9561 Design and Manufacture of Compression
Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System
14 CFR 35; SAE ARP355, AS107, AIR1872
14 CFR 35, 34, 36; SAE ARP748A, AIR1872, ASTM
WK9560 Practice for Design and Manufacture of
Turbine Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System
Electric
•
•
•
Batteries
Solar (Photovoltaic)
Radioisotope
Generators/Starters
Fuels
•
•
Systems/Instruments
Tanks
General
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
IEC Std 952-1; MIL-B-8565; IEC 21/466/CD
IEC 61427:1999
SAE AIR1213
SAE AS13
ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines,
D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels
SAE AIR1408, AS407, AS431, AR1326
SAE AIR4069A, AS5502A, AMSS8802B
(SAE E-25 works); MIL-STD-8879c
The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 - Avionics
Comm/Nav
RTCA DO-187, DO-208, DO-278
Computers
(SAE AS-2 works)
Safety/Sit. Aware
MIL-STD 882
•
Sense & Avoid
ASTM F2411-04 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an
Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, RTCA DO-268
•
Anti-icing/Deicing
SAE AS5498, AIR 4367
•
Transponders
FAA TSO
Links
Security-none; NATO STANAG 4586; RTCA DO-254;
SAE ARP4791
Software
RTCA DO-178B
General
(SAE AS-1 works); ARINC 429 (analog) and 629 (digital)
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The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap:
Level 1 - Operations
UAS Operations
General
Terminology
Symbology
Flight
VFR
IFR
Payloads
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Ground
Taxi
Takeoff
Landings
The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 - General
Terminology
Symbology
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
ASTM F2395-05 Terminology for
Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems, AIAA R103-2004
SAE ARP4155, ARP5289
The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 - Flight
VFR
IFR
Payloads
• Data Recorders
• Returnable
− Sensors
− Relay/ Broadcast Eqmt
• Deliverable
− Weapons
− Cargo
− Aerial Refueling
Business Aviation Practices
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
14 CFR 91, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle Flight Authorization, WK10504 Practice for
Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Visual Range Flight
Operations
14 CFR 91, 95, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial
Vehicle Flight Authorization
Universal Interface; IEEE-1394b; SAE AS5609 SAE AS8039
SAE AS8039
SAE AIR4911, AS1212 (SWAP), AIR1277 (SWAP)
SAE J1113/28, J551/4, ARP5583 (HIRF)
14 CFR 91
Positive Control, Weapon Safing: SAE AIR5532
SAE AS1325, AS5385, ARP1409, AS25959
SAE ARP1665, AS1284
WK13989 Mini-UAS, Visual Range Operators
The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 - Ground
Taxi
Takeoff
Landing
Airports
AGE
SAE ARP693, AIR1589, AIR4096 (FOD), ARP5898
SAE AIR852, AS8044, AIR4096. ARP4104
SAE ARP1070, AIR1739, ARP181, ARP4102, AIR4243, ARP69
UA Accommodation at Alternates-none; 14 CFR 139; SAE
ARP5910, AIR1845, AIR5387, ARP4084, AIR1335
SAE AIR1247, AIR1375, AIR4286, AS4852, AS5488
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The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap:
Level 1 - Qualifications
Crew Qualifications
Crew
Pilots
Operators
Schools
Human Factors
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
Maintainers
Special
A&P Mechanics
Schools
Human Factors
General
Commercial
The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap:
Level 2 – Crew, Maintainer, Special
Crew
Pilots
Non-Pilot Aircrew
Schools
Human Factors
A&P Mechanics
Schools
Human Factors
General
14 CFR Part 61, 67; F2635 Standard Classification for
Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Certification
14 CFR 63, 65, 67
14 CFR 141, 142; SAE ARP5453
SAE ARP4033, ARP4107 (HF Glossary), (SAE G-10 works)
Maintainer
JI8152 (in work)
14 CFR 147; JI8152 (in work)
(SAE G-13 works)
14 CFR 43; F2584-06 Standard Practice for Maintenance and
Development of Maintenance Manuals for Light UAS
Special
Commercial Operators
14 CFR 119, 121, 133, 137
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The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap:
General
CASA UA25
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Australian regulation for certification
and operation of unmanned aircraft;
MIL-HDBK 516; ASTM F2501
Recommended Practices for
Unmanned Aircraft System
Airworthiness
The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap:
Findings – 5 Categories
Standards exists and explicitly written for UA
•
ASTM F2411 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-andAvoid System, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System
Airworthiness, ASTM F2505 Practice for Application of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21 Requirements to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Standard exists and directly applicable to UA (“as is”)
•
ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines
Standard exists and applicable to UA (aviation qualified), but focused elsewhere
•
SAE AIR4911, video interface for entertainment vice reconnaissance systems “The purpose of
this document is to establish the requirements for sensor/video interconnect subsystems.
These requirements have been driven predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace-type
military platforms and commercial aircraft. These requirements are intended to be used as
the criteria to establish a sensor/video interconnection standard that will foster the
development of common hardware to simplify the total interconnectivity of future avionics
platforms.”
Standard exists on topic, but indirectly applicable to UA (“thread”)
•
IEC 61427:1999, photovoltaic (solar) cells
No suitable standard exists
•
UA (none) vice aircraft carrier (MIL-STD 331) catapults
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap:
Conclusions & Action
Many UAS relevant topics covered in existing standards.
Documentation gap for airworthiness now covered in F2501,
incorporating over 300 standards.
F38 recognizes these existing standards, and focuses on
addressing identified gaps now and in the future.
Subcommittees and lead writers assigned to address the
identified ‘gaps’ in UAS standards.
Best Practices draft standards be structured along same lines as
briefing and expanded/updated to identify such gaps in
standards.
New F38 members sought with expertise directly applicable to
these gaps.
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.
ASTM International Committee F38
on Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Daniel A. Schultz
ASTM International
Director, Committee Services
+1 610-832-9716
[email protected]
www.astm.org
100 Barr Harbor Drive
W. Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959
USA
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.

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