F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Gap Analysis Lead Author: F38 Member Laurence Newcome Supplement - Gap Analysis in Detail Recalling Subcommittee Structure: • F38.01 Airworthiness Standards • F38.02 Operations Standards • F38.03 Pilot & Maintenance Qualifications The Gap Analysis Will • • • • provide guidance for standards bodies and user groups engaged in developing or adopting standards governing unmanned aircraft system design, manufacture, test, training, operation, and maintenance preclude duplicating existing standards already applicable to unmanned aviation identify gaps in standards coverage unique to needs of unmanned aviation Roadmap Key: ASTM F38 standards in progress - in orange ASTM approved standards – in yellow Outstanding needs – in red © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: WBS Example Format Crew Qualifications Maintainers Airframe UAS Operations Airframe Airworthiness Level 2 Airframe Level 3 Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Level 4 Reciprocating Ground Turbine Structures Materials Reciprocating Landing Gear TaxiGenerators Launch Devices Power Plant Turbine Avionics Takeoff Structures Launch Devices Fuels Generators Landings Landing Gear Comm/NAV Maintenance Reciprocating General Launch Devices Turbine Links Launch DevicesData Environmental Electric Fuels Generators Maintenance General General General - Batteries Launch Devices Electric Environmental - Solar Fuels General - Radioisotope General - Batteries - GSE Electric - Batteries ASTM - Solar - Radioisotope Level 5 Materials Power Plant Pilot Non-Pilot Schools Human Factors - Certificates - Ratings Safety /SA WK5423 Certificates and Ratings Issued for - ASTM Solar - UAV Radioisotope Pilots and Operators - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid ASTM F2111-04 Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Crew The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Airworthiness Airworthiness Level 2 Airframe Level 3 Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Launch Devices Fuels General Electric - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope Level 4 Level 5 Power Plant Avionics Comm/NAV Data Links General Safety /SA - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid ASTM F2111-04 Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – AIRFRAME (under Level 1 Airworthiness) Materials…………………………..MIL HDBK 5 (metals), 17 (composites) Structures…………………………MIL-HDBK 1530; MIL-STD 403A Landing Gear…………………….JIS W2502; FAA TSO-C62d; MIL-T-504; SAE ARP1493A Wheels/Brakes/Skid Control ARP1595A, ARP1907A, ARP813B, SAE ARP1311B, Gears/Struts/ Couplings ARP1598AAIR1494A, AIR4566, SAE AIR5487, AS1188 Tires Launch Devices…………………. ASTM F2585 Standard Specification for the Design and Performance of a Pneumatic UAS Launch System Recovery Devices………………. WK15881 Specification for Design and Performance of UAS Recovery Systems Environmental……………………(see next chart) RTCA DO-160C, • External MIL HDBK 237 • Internal (Onboard) General…………………………….14 CFR 21, 23, 25, 27, 29; ASTM F2501-06 Standard Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 3/4/5/6 - Environmental General External • • • • Altitude (TPH) De-icing/Anti-icing Rain, ice, lightning, etc. Salt, fog, dust, etc. • Fungus • • EMI, HERO, etc. Solar weather SAE ARP147E (terminology), ARP780B (symbols) MIL-STD 202, 810; RTCA DO-160; NEBS GR-63-CORE (see Avionics/Safety; SAE AC-9C work) SAE AIR1168/4, ARP 5577; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 MIL-STD 820; ASTM B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus ASTM D120 Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, D470 Method for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable, D518 Method for Rubber DeteriorationSurface Cracking; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 MIL-STD 461D, 646; SAE ARP1972, ARP5583, ARP5889 JEDEC JESD-89 Internal (Onboard) • • • • • Temperature Pressure Humidity Shock/Vibration/Accel Acoustic © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. SAE AIR64B, AIR89D, AIR1277B, AS8040A SAE AIR1168/7 SAE AIR1609A, ARP987A MIL-STD 167, 202, 331 (catapult/arrested landing), 810 SAE AIR1826 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Powerplants Reciprocating Engines • Propellers Turbines 14 CFR 33, 34, 36; SAE AS25109, AS1B, ASTM WK9561 Design and Manufacture of Compression Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System 14 CFR 35; SAE ARP355, AS107, AIR1872 14 CFR 35, 34, 36; SAE ARP748A, AIR1872, ASTM WK9560 Practice for Design and Manufacture of Turbine Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System Electric • • • Batteries Solar (Photovoltaic) Radioisotope Generators/Starters Fuels • • Systems/Instruments Tanks General © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. IEC Std 952-1; MIL-B-8565; IEC 21/466/CD IEC 61427:1999 SAE AIR1213 SAE AS13 ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines, D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels SAE AIR1408, AS407, AS431, AR1326 SAE AIR4069A, AS5502A, AMSS8802B (SAE E-25 works); MIL-STD-8879c The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Avionics Comm/Nav RTCA DO-187, DO-208, DO-278 Computers (SAE AS-2 works) Safety/Sit. Aware MIL-STD 882 • Sense & Avoid ASTM F2411-04 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, RTCA DO-268 • Anti-icing/Deicing SAE AS5498, AIR 4367 • Transponders FAA TSO Links Security-none; NATO STANAG 4586; RTCA DO-254; SAE ARP4791 Software RTCA DO-178B General (SAE AS-1 works); ARINC 429 (analog) and 629 (digital) © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Operations UAS Operations General Terminology Symbology Flight VFR IFR Payloads © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Ground Taxi Takeoff Landings The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - General Terminology Symbology © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. ASTM F2395-05 Terminology for Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems, AIAA R103-2004 SAE ARP4155, ARP5289 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Flight VFR IFR Payloads • Data Recorders • Returnable − Sensors − Relay/ Broadcast Eqmt • Deliverable − Weapons − Cargo − Aerial Refueling Business Aviation Practices © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. 14 CFR 91, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization, WK10504 Practice for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Visual Range Flight Operations 14 CFR 91, 95, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization Universal Interface; IEEE-1394b; SAE AS5609 SAE AS8039 SAE AS8039 SAE AIR4911, AS1212 (SWAP), AIR1277 (SWAP) SAE J1113/28, J551/4, ARP5583 (HIRF) 14 CFR 91 Positive Control, Weapon Safing: SAE AIR5532 SAE AS1325, AS5385, ARP1409, AS25959 SAE ARP1665, AS1284 WK13989 Mini-UAS, Visual Range Operators The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Ground Taxi Takeoff Landing Airports AGE SAE ARP693, AIR1589, AIR4096 (FOD), ARP5898 SAE AIR852, AS8044, AIR4096. ARP4104 SAE ARP1070, AIR1739, ARP181, ARP4102, AIR4243, ARP69 UA Accommodation at Alternates-none; 14 CFR 139; SAE ARP5910, AIR1845, AIR5387, ARP4084, AIR1335 SAE AIR1247, AIR1375, AIR4286, AS4852, AS5488 © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Qualifications Crew Qualifications Crew Pilots Operators Schools Human Factors © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Maintainers Special A&P Mechanics Schools Human Factors General Commercial The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – Crew, Maintainer, Special Crew Pilots Non-Pilot Aircrew Schools Human Factors A&P Mechanics Schools Human Factors General 14 CFR Part 61, 67; F2635 Standard Classification for Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Certification 14 CFR 63, 65, 67 14 CFR 141, 142; SAE ARP5453 SAE ARP4033, ARP4107 (HF Glossary), (SAE G-10 works) Maintainer JI8152 (in work) 14 CFR 147; JI8152 (in work) (SAE G-13 works) 14 CFR 43; F2584-06 Standard Practice for Maintenance and Development of Maintenance Manuals for Light UAS Special Commercial Operators 14 CFR 119, 121, 133, 137 © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: General CASA UA25 © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Australian regulation for certification and operation of unmanned aircraft; MIL-HDBK 516; ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Findings – 5 Categories Standards exists and explicitly written for UA • ASTM F2411 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-andAvoid System, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2505 Practice for Application of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21 Requirements to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Standard exists and directly applicable to UA (“as is”) • ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines Standard exists and applicable to UA (aviation qualified), but focused elsewhere • SAE AIR4911, video interface for entertainment vice reconnaissance systems “The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for sensor/video interconnect subsystems. These requirements have been driven predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace-type military platforms and commercial aircraft. These requirements are intended to be used as the criteria to establish a sensor/video interconnection standard that will foster the development of common hardware to simplify the total interconnectivity of future avionics platforms.” Standard exists on topic, but indirectly applicable to UA (“thread”) • IEC 61427:1999, photovoltaic (solar) cells No suitable standard exists • UA (none) vice aircraft carrier (MIL-STD 331) catapults © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Conclusions & Action Many UAS relevant topics covered in existing standards. Documentation gap for airworthiness now covered in F2501, incorporating over 300 standards. F38 recognizes these existing standards, and focuses on addressing identified gaps now and in the future. Subcommittees and lead writers assigned to address the identified ‘gaps’ in UAS standards. Best Practices draft standards be structured along same lines as briefing and expanded/updated to identify such gaps in standards. New F38 members sought with expertise directly applicable to these gaps. © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. ASTM International Committee F38 on Unmanned Aircraft Systems Daniel A. Schultz ASTM International Director, Committee Services +1 610-832-9716 [email protected] www.astm.org 100 Barr Harbor Drive W. Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 USA © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved.