Green Technology - Welcome to Multimedia University

Report
Green Technology
RESEARCH PROPOSAL
M V CHILUKURI
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
INTRODUCTION
 Power System Fact
Today’s electricity system is 99.97 percent reliable, yet still
allows for power outages and interruptions that cost Americans
at least $150 billion each year — about $500 for every man,
woman and child.
 Current Scenario
In 2009, over 16 percent of all energy used is expected to be in the
form of electricity, up from 9 percent in 19731. Currently, the average
efficiency of the world's legacy electricity grids is around only 33
percent. This contrasts with 60 percent efficiency for grids based on
the latest technology.
SMART GRID
A smarter grid applies technologies, tools and techniques
(ICT) available now to bring knowledge to power
knowledge capable of making the grid work far more
efficiently...
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Ensuring its reliability to degrees never before possible.
Maintaining its affordability.
Reinforcing our global competitiveness.
Fully accommodating renewable and traditional energy sources.
Potentially reducing our carbon footprint.
Introducing advancements and efficiencies yet to be envisioned.
SMART GRID IN A NUTSHELL
 Broadly speaking, Smart Grid companies add computer
intelligence and networking to what is otherwise a
'dumb' electrical network.
 Other examples of Smart Grid activities include:
making the process of traditional electricity generation
more efficient; connecting sustainable energy
sources to the existing grid, and smart meters.
SMART GRID: GREEN
 For example, some Smart Grid technologies assist with
load leveling of the electrical grid. This allows a power
generating company to run cleaner power sources,
such as nuclear or hydroelectric, at full output, 24hours a day, while reducing the need to provide more
carbon emitting gas, coal or oil plants in a surge
(usually for only a couple of hours per day), to meet
peak demand. Further, by reducing variability in
demand, fewer new power plants need to be
constructed.
SMART GRID - SCOPE
GREEN TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP
Integrated
Renewable Energy
System
Smart Metering
Smart Grid
Distributed
Generation
BACKGROUND
Many utilities are somewhere in the process of developing a roadmap for
implementation of a communications, control, and data management
architecture that can facilitate monitoring, control, and automation functions at
all levels of the power system. This “smart grid” will provide opportunities for
improving reliability, energy efficiency, management of assets, customer
services, and demand management.
One of the keys to success in implementation of a smart grid that can enable a
wide range of intelligent applications well into the future is to use a standards based
approach and focus on interoperability of technologies. Requirements
for technologies and systems are being developed through the
characterization of advanced applications that will use the technologies – use
cases. There is an opportunity for the industry to enhance the interoperability
of technologies and the development of appropriate standards through the
sharing of use cases and common requirements that are developed from
these use cases
© 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
cases.
Integrated Renewable Energy Systems
 Advanced Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Distributed Generation
Wind-Mill
Photovoltaic
Integrated Renewable Energy
Generation & Storage System
Fuel Cell
Min-Hydro
SMART METERING
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an approach to
integrating consumers based upon the development of open standards. It provides
consumers with the ability to use electricity more efficiently and provides utilities
with the ability to detect problems on their systems and operate them more
Efficiently. AMI enables consumer-friendly efficiency concepts like “Prices to
Devices” to work like this: Assuming that energy is priced on what it costs in near
real-time – a Smart Grid imperative – price signals are relayed to “smart” home
controllers or end-consumer devices like thermostats, washer/dryers and
refrigerators – the home’s major energy-users. The devices, in turn, process the
Information based on consumers’ learned wishes and power accordingly. The
house or office responds to the occupants, Because this interaction occurs largely
“in the background,” with minimal human intervention, there’s a dramatic savings
on energy that would otherwise be consumed. rather than vice-versa.
INTEGRATED RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
Distributed generation is the use of small-scale power
generation technologies located close to the load being
served, capable of lowering costs, improving reliability,
reducing emissions and expanding energy options.
BOTTOM LINE
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Major manufacturers and utilities should explore partnerships with, and consider acquisitions of, smart
energy companies. Companies should not be distracted by falling oil prices. Supply remains volatile, and
demand uncertain. And while the price of oil has dropped over 50 percent from its 2008 peak, energy
costs remain well above their long-term trends.
Governments around the world should look at the cost effectiveness of trade offs between sustainable
energy subsidies compared with commitments to upgrading the existing grid. The global downturn may
make significant government support for SmartGrid spending unlikely, although some administrations are
likely to adopt a policy of stimulative infrastructure spending on their electrical grids, some of which will
be for SmartGrid equipment. But profit-oriented utilities and enterprises should continue to explore and
deploy SmartGrid technologies that offer high returns on investment, even without government support,
to conserve costs.
Governments unable to finance SmartGrid investment could instead promote the technology via
information campaigns and stimulate adoption through tax incentives. And as governments increasingly
focus on energy security, investing in the SmartGrid could be used to reduce dependence on non-domestic
energy sources. It could also make the grid more resistant to military or terrorist attacks, by physical or
digital means.
Venture capitalists (VC) should devote increasing resources to understanding smart energy technologies.
VC investment in the sectorm remains strong, even during the current economic crisis, with SmartGrid
companies receiving the second largest slice of the GreenTech pie, behind only solar energy.
http://www.deloitte.co.uk/TMTPredictions/technology/SmartGrid-electricity-grid-efficiency.cfm
SMART GRID 2030
INVENTION
In celebrating the beginning of the 21st century, the National
Academy of Engineering set about identifying the single most
important engineering achievement of the 20th century. The
Academy compiled an estimable list of 20 accomplishments
which have affected virtually everyone in the developed world.
The internet took thirteenth place on this list, and “highways”
eleventh. Sitting at the top of the list was electrification as
made possible by the grid, “the most significant engineering
achievement of the 20th Century.”
SMART GRID: DEFINITION & FUNCTIONS
Electricity delivery network modernized using latest
digital/information technologies to meet key defining functions
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Enable Active Participation by Customers
Accommodate All Generation and Storage Options
Enable New Products, Services, and Markets
Provide Power Quality for the Digital Economy
Optimize Asset Utilization and Operate Efficiently
Anticipate and Respond to System Disturbances
Operate Resiliently Against Attacks and Natural Disasters
7 smart grid characteristics reaffirmed through the
Smart Grid Implementation Workshop held June
2008
REFERENCES
Eric Lightner - Director, Smart Grid Task Force Evolution and Progress of
Smart Grid Development at the Department of Energy Presented at FERC/NARUC
Smart Grid Collaborative Workshop, July 23, 2008.
2. THE SMART GRID – An Introduction, US DOE Report
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