Bolometers evolution - Fysik och Teknisk Fysik Chalmers/GU

Report
New Generation Submillimeter telescopes
for an Era after Planck and Herschel
missions
V.D. Gromov, N.S. Kardashev
Astro Space Center, P.N. Lebedev Physical
Institute , Moscow, Russia
Outline
ASC projects
Golden Era of Submillimeter Astronomy
(THz/FIR, Astrophisics/Cosmology Exp./Theory)
Current projects: Spitzer, Astro-F, Planck, Hershel, ALMA, APEX
New generation projects: Cryogenic Submillimeter telescopes
Sensitivity gap between radioastromy and IR - X ray
Extraterestrial background gap, most distant objects detection
New generation detectors: antenna-copled bolometers
Conclusions. Need in observationa tests of detectors
Lebedev Physical Institute
Astro-Space Center
Space Projects
Submillimetron and Millimetron
Submillimetron project participants
Millimetron
Project
Telescope diameter -12 m
Spectral region 0.2 - 3 mm
Mirror cooling T = 4 K
Presented at 36-th Liege Int.
Astrophys. Colloqium "From
Optical to Millimetric
Interferometry: Scientific and
Technological Challenges",
July 2001. Proc., pp. 99-102
V. Gromov, N. Kardashev,
"Space Submillimeter
interferometer”.
Submillimeter telescope module
docked to Russian Segment
of the ISS for service and
instruments replacement
RSCE
Russian
segment of
the ISS
S.P. Korolev
Rocket Space
Corp. Energia
Leonid Gorshkov
Sergey Stoiko
Andrey Adov
Submillimeter telescope module
Submillimer Sky Survey Project
Submillimeter Telescope
bay (shields not shown)
Antenna of docking
system
Aggregates compartment
•Telescope diameter:
D=0.6 m .
•Wavelengths:
submillimeter bands:
0.2- 2 mm .
•Cooling: telescope - 5K,
detectors - 0.1-0.25 K .
•Detectors: bolometer
arrays 10-18 W/Hz1/2
Solar panels
Docking assembly
Nonpressurized
compartment
Pressurized
compartment
•Sensitivity of the
telescope 3-12 mJy
(integration time = 1 s).
•Angular resolution
= 1’ - 10'
Spitzer (SIRTF, Space InfraRed Telescope Facility)
3-180
SIRTF is lifted into space aboard a Boeing Delta II Heavy rocket in the
early morning of August 25, 2003, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
Herschel (FIRST) and Planck mission 2007
Scientific objectives
• Full-sky survey in submillimeter and millimeter
wave region with polarization and variability data
• Catalog of all-sky submm point sources at tens mJy
level (high sensitivity limited by confusion and
extraterrestrial background in its spectral minimum)
• Photometric spectra (SED), and their variability,
high redshift evaluations
• Syunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZ cosmology)
• Foreground sources for CMBA analysis
• Quiet sources obscured by dust, not generating high
energy particles manifesting in radio and X-ray
• Cold object of Solar system, Kuiper belt, Oort cloud
WMAP satellite
Results:
Universe is
13.7  1%
Big
Bang
billion years Old
The geometry of the
Universe is flat.
The matter of which
we are made is only
4% of the Universe
WMAP has detected
evidence that first stars
ignited 200 million years
after the Big Bang.
Dark ages
5
10
l.y.
CMB
109 l.years
1010 light years
Super young galaxies: redshift measurements
in photometric (bolometric) submm survey
Starburst galaxy
model of
Efstathiou,
Rowan-Robinson
& Siebenmorgen
(2000, MNRAS).
Spectral band of
Submm sky
survey photometer
of Gromov et al.
(2003, 3d ESA
MMW workshop)
Next Generation Submillimeter-wave (Terahertz)
cryogenically cooled space telescope concepts
1
2
Small mirror
Full sky survey
Large deployable reflector
Selected sources imaging
ASC/RSCE:
Submillimetron
ASC:
Millimetron
NASA: CIRCE
Survey of InfraRed
Cosmic Evolution
NASA: SAFIR
Single Aperture Far
InfraRed observatory
-5
2
I , W/m sr
Extraterrestrial background
10
-6
10
-7
10
-8
10
-9
10
10
-2
10
-1
, mm
b>60o, 30 o<b<60 o,
Brightness I, for
(from bottom to top).
0
10
10
1
10 o<b<30 o, and b= 0, l=180 o
Cooled mirror background
2
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
-2
I , W/m sr
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
10
-2
10
-1
0
10
1
10
 , mm
Telescope mirrors T = 80, 40, 20, 10, 5, 4, 3, and 2 K - thin curves from
top to bottom ( =0.01); dashed curve - =0.04, T= 5 K. Thick solid
curve shows extraterrestrial background for comparison.
But why 4K?
Because it makes a big difference!
A 4K scope is background-limited
(zodi @ <200µm, CMB @ >200µm)
At these wavelengths, point source
sensitivity is more dependent on
temperature than on aperture!
Photon noise
(Bose-Einstein statistics)
Power detector, signal ~ <|E2|>:
(direct detector, bolometer, photon counter).
Noise Equivalent Power:
2
2
NEP ~<n >=
<n> (1 + <n>)
Linear detector, signal ~ E(t):
(RF amplifier, mixer receiver).
Noise temperature
2
Tnoise ~ <E > ~ (<n> + 1/2)
<n> - mean number of photons in quantum state.
At low background <n> << 1 .
Moor law for astronomy
Astronomical bolometers evolution
from simple cell to full function separation
CEB-STJ bolometer (An)(Ab+Hc)(Hc+Ts)
Antenna-coupled bolometers
TES, KID (An)(Ab+Ts+Hc)
Composite bolometer
Bolometer F. Low
(An+Ab)(Ts) (Hc)
(An+Ab+Ts) (Hc)
Hot electron InSb bolometer “all in one” (An+Ab+Ts+Hc)
An-antenna, Ab-absorber, Ts-to sensor, Hc - heat conductor
Antenna-coupled bolometers
no limitation on sensor size
The calculated sensitivity is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of the best available
direct detectors of millimeter and submillimeter radiation operated at the same temperature.
TES - Transition Edge Sensor: 1990-Nahum M.; Richards P.
SIN: Superconductor-Insulator-Normal metal sensor
1993 - Nahum M.; Richards P.L.; Mears C.A.
SIN demonstration NEP = 3x10-18 W Hz -1/2
April - November - M.Nahum, J.Martinis (NIST)
Andreev reflection
"Andreev detector“ - ASC + KIPP 1995
CEB - Cold Electron Bolometer
(NHEB, CCNHEB)
L.Kuzmin, Chalmers 1998
NEP comparision
CMB COBE/FIRAS
NEPbol=10-14 W/Hz1/2.
SCUBA bolometer array.
NEPbol=10-16 W/Hz1/2.
CMB anisotropy.
NEPbol=2·10-17 W/Hz1/2
(BOOMERANG,MAXIMA)
Spider-Web Bolometer
NEPbol=10-17 W/Hz1/2.
Andreev Bolometer.
NEPbol=10-18 W/Hz1/2.
Nanometric bolometer at temperature of milli-Kelvins
as subject for "Andreev physics”, a mesoscopic region,
where dominate Andreev reflection, Andreev conductance,
Andreev interferometry, Andreev current, Andreev levels,
Andreev scattering, Andreev tunneling, Andreev channels,
Andreev orbit, Andreev states and even Andreev billiard.
Antarctic station Vostok
Computed
atmospheric
transmission,
zenith, mean
winter t=-70oC,
w = 0 .2 mm,
H=3488 m a.s.l..
Burova et. al,
P. Astron. J.,
15, 339 (1986)
Peak Terskol, 3100 m a.l.s.
BTA 6 meter telescope, Russia
ALMA, 5000 m a.s.l.
COBE (COsmic Background Explorer)
Sky mapping in radio and
10 IR bands 1.25 -240 m
with resolution 42.
Nov. 1989.
COBE satellite had a total mass
of 2270 kg, a length of 5.49 m,
and a diameter of 2.44 m with
Sun-Earth shield and solar
panels folded (8.53 m with the
solar panels deployed).
IRAS – discovery
of IR sky
Survey
 = 12, 25, 60, 100 m
ISO
(Infrared Space Observatory)
• Nov.1995, 0.6 m, T=3 K.
• IR bands 2.5 -240 m,
5" resolution, pointing to
selected sources
• For comparision, main
Submillimetron bands:
0.3-1 mm.
IRIS (Astro-F)
Infrared Imaging Surveyor
2005
0.7 m
resolution 30-50"
at  50-200 m.
Second IR sky survey
Lagrange Points of the Earth-Sun system
(not drawn to scale!).
1AU =150 million km.
Lagrange points L1
and L2 are located
approximately
1.5 million kilometers
from the Earth
Detector Assembly
Bolometers filled arrays
characteristics:
 response time = 10 ms
 temperature = 300 mK
 NEP
= 5.10-17 W/Hz1/2
 (m)
pixel FWHM
# of pixels
Pixel size
100 - 700
25 arcsec
16x32
1.5 mm
2000
72 arcsec
6x12
4.3 mm
Size of array 24x48 mm2 26x52 mm2
FOV of array 6.7x13.3‘2
7.2x14.4‘2
25 arcmn
Focal plane
CIRCE
initiative of Infrared Astrophysics group of GSFC/NASA
• 2011, 2m, T=5 K,
confusion limited full sky
survey  0.1-0.5 mm with
13" resolution.
• Warm launch, radiative
cooling + liquid Helium,
0.1 K ADR cooling of
bolometer arrays.
• TES bolometers
SAFIR
The Single Aperture
Far Infrared
Observatory
[email protected]
Parameter
Requirement
Science Targets
Aperture
~10m
distant galaxies
circumstellar disks
Temperature
4K
Wavelength
<20-500+µm
Galaxy @ z=5
coolant line emission
(JWST, ALMA overlap)
Diffraction limit
≥40µm (1”)
circumstellar disks
distant galaxies
Lifetime
>5 years
Productivity, time variability!
(>106 objects in survey
with 60-cm cold mirror)
Point sources sensitivity
1/2
3
Noise Equivivalent Flux Density, mJy/Hz
10
IRAS
2
10
SIRTF/MIPS
Hershel/SPIRE
Plank/HFI
Quantum limit
for heterodyne
detector with
=10 GHz
1
10
IRIS
ISO-PHT
SUBMILLIMETRON
0
10
-1
10
-2
10
-1
0
10
10
, mm
1
10
Spectra of a sturburst galaxy at different redshifts
Interstellar Dust Fractal Model
(Ned Wright, UCLA)
Bolometer technology – Terahertz measurements – Astro-applicatons
ASC-FIAN (Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow)
RSCE (Korolev Space Corp.)
Chalmers
University of
Technology
Links
SPB 0209
WMAP

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