Directed Net Fundamentals

Report
Tactical Use Of Radios Part 1
How to use your hand-held radio
effectively in an emergency
Advancement Module 01
Objectives:
After completing both parts of this
module you will be able to:
 Understand the types of radios and licenses
 Identify typical radio features and controls
 Use correct radio operating procedures
 Know standard procedural words, and phonetics
 Use your portable radio more effectively during
an emergency!
KEY ISSUE
SAFETY!
Radios enhance situation awareness by:
Allowing feedback from search teams
Coordinating re-deployment of
resources
Broadcasting weather, environment and
other warnings to action teams
Other possibilities . . .
Should we use cell phones, landlines, CB radios, or
business radios, responder radios?
Using cell phones and landlines is perfectly OK for some functions:
• To connect the CERT team to the Emergency Operations Center
• (214) 670-4275
• To activate CERT team members
In an emergency for field operations:
• Cell towers may be down or without power
• Landlines are not mobile
• CB radios do not penetrate structures well
• Business radios are restricted by licensing
• Responder radios are restricted by law; in some jurisdictions
responder radios may be available to CERT for liaison use
RADIO TYPES
 The Family Radio Service
 No license is required
 Radios designed and “Type
Accepted” for use in the FRS
 Max. transmit power 500mw
Short range – “line of sight”
FRS
RADIO TYPES
GMRS
● General Mobile Radio Service
● An FCC Part 95 Licensed Service for personal
and business use by family members
● FCC license, 5 years w/Fee, no test required
● More powerful than FRS for longer range.
● FRS channels 1 through 7 are shared with
GMRS
● FRS and GMRS may legally talk to each other
on the shared simplex channels.
RADIO TYPES
The NEXTEL/Direct Talk
radios are former cell
phone units that have
been decommissioned,
but they have a walkietalkie feature which can
still be used. Range is
only a mile or two.
Dallas CERT has about
60 of them to use
during deployments.
NEXTEL
RADIO TYPES
HAM
 Wide range of radio frequencies for amateur
operators
 FCC licensing required and obtained through
training, passing exams and paying fees
 Licenses are good for 10 years
 Substantially more powerful radios
 Can use repeaters
 Unique call signs are assigned to each licensee
Repeaters
● Repeat signals to extend range of portable and mobile units
● Receive on one frequency while re-transmitting on another
(Duplex)
● Amateur repeaters are available to licensed Ham users
● Repeaters are located on tall buildings or other high points
● Transmit at 50-100 times the power of a portable radio
● Coverage depends upon “radio horizon,” typically 20 to 60
miles
Repeaters
FCC Part 95
 If you operate a radio that has been approved
exclusively under the rules that apply to FRS, you
are not required to have a license.
 If you operate a radio under the rules that apply
to GMRS, you must have a GMRS license.
 GMRS radios generally transmit at higher power
levels (1 to 5 watts is typical) and may have
detachable antennas.
What are the parts of a radio?
 Typical controls include:
 On/Off switch, possibly combined with a volume control
 Channel or frequency selector
 Push-to-talk (PTT) button
 Squelch
 Other important parts include:
 Microphone and speaker (sometimes combined)
 Antenna
 Battery
Portable Radio “Anatomy”
Power On-Off, Switch
• Is combined with volume
control on some models
• Or “push-button” on others
First of all, make sure the
radio is “turned on”
Channel Selector
Up-Down arrows
or a rotating knob
More Portable Radio “Anatomy”
About “privacy codes” – they are a feature
on FRS/GMRS radios, but they don’t really
insure privacy. If they are “digital” units, they
may offer some privacy.
The ex-Nextel radios used by Dallas CERT for
deployment are digital and they use a variety
of special encoding and transmission
methods that DO insure some level of privacy.
We’ll get back to this a bit more when we talk
about Communication Security.
Example of Channel Assignments
for Large Incidents
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
Neighborhood Watch liaison to CERT
CERT Sizeup Team
CERT Search Teams
CERT Rescue Teams
CERT Fire Teams
CERT Triage and Scribe
CERT Liaison to Public Safety Responders
Next – tactical radio
protocol or, what to say
and when to say it
Starting up the radio
• First things first – turn on the power
• Adjust the speaker volume
• Next, adjust the squelch
• When you are using the radio, it’s
best to hold the antenna in a straight
up vertical position
A 2-way radio is not
“Like a telephone...”
BECAUSE:
● Only one person can talk at a time
● No one else can speak when YOU
have the talk button depressed!
● SO…
● Do a check frequently to be sure your
“push to talk” button is not depressed
When Do You Speak?
Speak ONLY if you have to
• LISTEN don’t “talk over” others
• WAIT until others have finished
• THINK about what you will say
• USE PLAIN LANGUAGE
• KEEP IT SHORT!
Push-To-Talk…PAUSE…talk
 Push the “talk” button then wait a
couple of seconds before speaking
 This avoids chopping off the first
couple of words as the radio
changes over from its receive state
to transmit
Single Station Call
1. Name the unit you are calling
2. Then say the words “THIS IS”
3. Followed by your Unit name
4. Optionally, then say “OVER”
Tactical Call Signs
● Tactical call signs are used to make it easy
to identify units
● Tactical call signs pertain to the activity
that is being supported, for example:
– Water Stop One
– Northeast Triage
– Driver Fourteen
– Mounted Patrol Six
– Rescue Team Three
Single Station Call – Example:
The call
“SEARCH TEN, THIS IS COMMAND, OVER”
The answer
“COMMAND, THIS IS SEARCH TEN”
The response
“CONTACT MEDICAL ON CHANNEL ONE FOUR, OVER”
The acknowledgement
“TEN CHANGING TO ONE FOUR FOR CONTACT,
SEARCH TEN CLEAR”
Acknowledge Calls To You:
When you hear a call to you,
reply in this format:
“THIS IS” followed by “<your ID>”
This lets the unit calling know that you are ready
to receive a message. Here’s an example:
“THIS IS P2 GARAGE, GO AHEAD”
When it is not clear,
echo the message:
Example:
Control: Search 3 contact Search 7 on
channel 4
Search 3: Control, please confirm “You want
me to contact Search 7 on channel 4?”
Control: Correct!
Basics for a “controlled net”
– be thoughtful!
WAIT to be recognized before speaking
Don't send information that must be copied until
certain that you have the other's attention
ACKNOWLEDGE transmissions to you
‘Control’ then knows you are ready to continue
with your assignment, releasing the
frequency
This avoids having to repeat the message.
KEEP IT SIMPLE
● Answer questions directly; do not explain
● Add details, but be brief
● Let ‘Control’ or the requestor ask for details
● ASK who a message is for if you don't know
● Let third parties speak directly to each other
Don't speak louder
in a noisy environment
If you speak louder than is
needed for normal speech,
the radio will distort your
voice, reducing
intelligibility.
In Noisy Environments
Preventive Steps:
 Use earphone or headset (if you have one)
 Turn down volume - don’t add to noise level!
 Shield microphone from the wind
 Speak ACROSS the microphone
 Use a normal speaking voice
Use Procedural Words
Correctly
 Using proper key words helps expedite radio
messages and reduces copying errors
 They are effective ONLY if everyone understands
and uses them correctly
The “Basic Four”
Everyone who uses a 2-way radio
should learn and use these:
● “THIS IS” - Used to identify who is calling
● "OVER" - Means “I have finished speaking and
it’s now your turn”
● “GO AHEAD” - Means “I’m ready to copy”
● "OUT" or “CLEAR”- Means - “I am finished and
expect no reply’
The station who initiates the call always TERMINATES it.
Procedural Word Recap
• OVER
•
- Leaves no doubt whose turn it is…
• OUT or CLEAR
• - Tells everyone the contact has ended.
Using “Over and Out” together is unnecessary,
use either one or the other.
Communications Security
 Voice radio communication is fairly leaky –
anyone with a scanner can intercept
transmissions
 CERT teams may encounter situations with
mass casualties, crimes, or security concerns
 Radio protocol in such circumstances must
protect the privacy of individuals and the
security of operations, so what things should
we think about?
Communications Security
• Avoid mentioning names of subjects or victims
• Avoid “fat fingering” the Push-To-Talk button so
that there is an “open mike” when confidential
conversations are taking place
• If you have a voice-activated mike – don’t have
confidential discussions near the radio!
• Avoid mentioning casualty numbers or incident
locations
End of first section

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