CHAPTER 15 – GLOBAL AGE SEC. 1: CONQUEST IN THE AMERICAS I. II. III. IV. V. What was happening in North and South America What was Happening in Europe Why leave Europe Where did the Explorers come from Conquest in the Americas Focus Question: How did European colonization of the Americas shape global economies and societies? Warm-Up Question: What forced Europeans to want to explore, and colonize new lands? What was the ‘push factor’? What was the ‘pull factor’? I. WHAT WAS HAPPENING ON NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA? WHAT WAS HAPPENING ON NORTH AMERICA? Around 1200 AD, nomads migrated to the Valley of Mexico In 1325 Tenochtitlan was built, today Mexico City is built in the same location. They conquered all of their neighbors, and by 1517, there were 5-6 million Aztecs WHAT WAS HAPPENING ON NORTH AMERICA? The Maya derived from the Olmecs, who lived along the gulf of Mexico between 1500 BC – 400 BC By 300 BC Mayans were building large cities all over southern Mexico and modern day Guatemala. Chitchen – itza was one of the largest cities built, and it still stands. The Maya abandoned most of their cities by 900 AD and lived in farming villages by the time the Spanish arrived WHAT WAS HAPPENING ON SOUTH AMERICA? Started around 1100 AD in the Andes Mountains of South America. Known for their extensive roads, Incans built their civilization of the sides of mountains. Included nearly 10 million people at its height http://youtu.be/pQPS YenhtoY II. WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN EUROPE? WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN EUROPE? WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN EUROPE? 1. The Renaissance made people curious about the world - motivating people to want to uncover new parts of the world. 2. The Protestant Revolution created a rift between Catholics and non-Catholics (protestants); making it necessary to spread religion far and wide with hopes of gaining more followers. 3. Age of Exploration European nations grew powerful and sought to spread their influence throughout the world 4. Imperialism was the European phenomenon where powerful countries like Britain and France were trying to colonize other nations. III. WHY LEAVE EUROPE? PUSH FACTOR – this is what ‘pushes’ someone to do something. What was the push factor of Europeans wanting to leave Europe PUSH FACTOR (WHY LEAVE EUROPE)? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Spread Protestantism or Catholicism (GOD) (4 bullets) To expand the King’s Power (GLORY) (3 bullets) Explore new places to increase profits (GOLD)(2 bullets) Look for a trade route to India Look for new places to exploit (steal from) Because they can!! – New Technology (4 bullets) GOD •Protestants set out to get away from corrupt Catholics. •Catholics set out to convert NonChristians and gain citizenship worldwide. •They all set out to compete against Islam. •Explorers were encouraged to spread Christianity or bring missionaries who would focus only on conversions GLORY •Kings sponsored voyages of exploration to gain overseas colonies, new sources of wealth for their nation, & increased power •New colonies meant more taxes and new possibilities to find Gold •Exploration presented Europeans the opportunity to rise from poverty and gain fame, fortune, & status GOLD (MONEY) •Merchants began looking for quick, direct trade routes to Asia to avoid Muslim & Italian merchants & increase profits •The Crusades & Renaissance stimulated European desires for exotic Asian luxury goods TECHNOLOGY http://youtu.be/7RxzPU8XAuo •Trade & cultural diffusion during the Renaissance introduced new navigation techniques to Europeans •Maps were •Magnetic compass made •Astrolabe used starsmore accurate used longitude & latitude sailing more accurate to showand direction IV. WHERE DID THESE EXPLORERS COME FROM? The first Explorers were from Portugal and Spain. French and English Explorers came after they saw the success of the first few. (so we will talk about them later..) 1. PORTUGAL Portugal was the early leader in the Age of Exploration In Portugal, Prince Henry the Navigator started a school of navigation to train sailors He brought in Europe’s best map-makers, shipbuilders, & sailing instructors He wanted to discover new territories, find a quick trade route to Asia, & expand Portugal’s power PORTUGAL •During the Age of Exploration, Portugal created colonies along the African coast, in Brazil, & the Spice Islands in Asia 2. SPAIN The Spanish government saw Portugal’s wealth & did not want to be left out More than any other European monarch, Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain sponsored & supported overseas expeditions Columbus went to Spain to get a sponsorship for an exploration in 1492 Hernan Cortez arrived In Mexico in 1519 Francisco Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532 V. CONQUEST IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA. 1. COLUMBUS Columbus believed the world was round & thought he could reach Asia by sailing west Columbus reached the Bahamas in America but thought that he had reached islands off the coast of India He made 4 trips to “India” never knowing he was in “America” It was named “America” in 1507 after the expeditions of Amerigo Vespucci were published. 2. CONQUISTADORS • Spain sent explorers called conquistadors to the New World to find gold, claim land, & spread Christianity • Cortes conquered the Aztecs • Arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, after a 3 year struggle, Cortes takes over the city and kills the Aztec king, Moctezuma. • with only 600 men he destroyed an empire of 5 million – (smallpox killed most of the Aztecs) B. CONQUISTADORS • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca in 1532. • He slaughtered thousands of Inca and killed their leader, Atahualpa. CONTINUED C. RESULTS OF CONQUEST • The influx of gold from America made Spain the most powerful country in Europe during the early years of the Age of Exploration • tens of thousands of Indians died at the hands of conquistadors and disease. • these conquests set the world stage for Imperialism. dominating and exploiting other cultures.