Sustainable Development Education and ICT for international understanding and sustainable future 17 July 2015 Eila Jeronen, Ph.D., Adjunct professor Contents • Introduction • The five dimensions of sustainability • Sustainable development – Key concepts – Interpretations of sustainability – Ecosystem change and human wellbeing • Wellbeing and basic needs • Teaching, studying and learning: – – – – – – Learning conceptions Sustainable development and environmental studies Contextual theory and practice Goals and contents of Sustainable Development Education Environmental awareness as a goal Holistic environmental education – ICT and distance education • Conclusion Introduction 1/5 • Sustainable development is widely recognized as a prior task for societies in the 21st century. • Following the tradition of environmental education which was thought as a main instrument for solving environmental problems, education once again seems to serve as a prior vehicle to reach the ambitious goals of sustainability. Introduction 2/5 • Finland launched a special information society strategy in 1995 in which the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning figured as a key to accelerating the progress in the chosen direction (Ministry of Education 1995). • In 1999, the Ministry of Education updated the ICT strategy. This was a continuation of earlier governmental efforts to steer national growth towards an information society through learning and education. – The main concept in the programme was a ´learning citizenship society` (Ministry of Education 1999). Introduction 3/5 • The third strategy, the Information Society Programme was published in 2004. – It has three categories: • knowledge, • content and • the operating environment. – It is targeted to all players in the education, training and research fields and it concerns all citizens as users or producers of information society services. – It is geared to • develop all citizens' information society knowledge and skills, • enable educational institutions to use information and communications technology (ICT) in a versatile way in their activities, • establish ICT-based procedures in education, training and research and • promote social innovation through the use of ICT. (Ministry of Education 2004.) Introduction 4/5 • Research studies have consistently shown that fears, hesitations, lack of knowledge concerning sustainable development, insecurity concerning the disciplinary and pedagogical aims, weakness in coaching open-ended and participatory processes, and self-imposed boundaries exist. (Kyburz-Graber, 2001; Azapagic, Perdan, & Shallcross, 2005; Jeronen, Anttila-Muilu, & Jeronen, 2006.) Introduction 5/5 • Consequently, we need to work collaboratively to ensure interest in environmental issues and sustainable development now and in future. • Through education we can foster interest in sustainable life chances, aspirations and futures for young people. • According to Krapp et al. (1992), interest has two components, individual and situational interests. – Individual interests are specific to individuals and develop over time. – Situational interests, on the other hand, are generated by certain stimulus characteristics and tend to be shared among individuals. They may have a permanent effect and serve as a basis for the emergence of individual interests. The five dimensions of sustainability • Ecological – impact on ecological resources and services (critical ecological capital) • Economic – impact on livelihoods and economic security (manufactured capital) • Social – impact on social justice and social capital • Cultural – impact on cultural diversity/capital • Personal – impact on human health and happiness, personal capital Sustainable development ”Sustainable development means meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. … Sustainable development is about safeguarding the earth's capacity to support life in all its diversity. It is based on democracy, gender equality, solidarity, the rule of law and respect for Fundamental rights.” (The Presidency Conclusions of…, 2006, 7) Sustainable development: Key concepts • Anthropocentrism (from Greek: άνθρωπος, anthropos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kentron, "center") is the belief that humans must be considered at the center, and the world must be interpreted or regarded in terms of human values and experiences (Merriam-webster´s on-line dictionary). • Well-being: Sustainability is connected in the well-being of a human being and the well-being of human-being is based on the well-being of nature. • Conceptions of well-being are shown when interpreting the idea of sustainability. (Norton, 2005.) Sustainable development: Interpretations of sustainability 1/4 • Agnosticism: – claims that science can not either reveal us Reality. • Descriptivism: – an effort to study what ought to be, the present given norms and traditions of a society. • Cultural relativism holds that the morality of an action depends on culture: – What is morally right in one culture, may be morally wrong in another. – Moreover, it holds that one culture cannot be held superior to another. Sustainability is decided independently by every society. Sustainable development: Interpretations of sustainability 2/4 • Weak sustainable development: – The principles of neo-classical economics can be applied to the solution of environmental problems. – E.g. Pearce, Solow and Beckerman. • Strong sustainability: – Ecological capital can be replaced only exceptionally. – Economic development is a precondition of environmental protection. – E.g. O´Riordan and Weale. (Baker, Kousis, Richardson, & Young, 2004) Sustainable development: Interpretations of sustainability 3/4 • Anthropocentric approach: - The Earth´s resources are infinite and the question of sustainability does not therefore arise. - New reserves of resources, or alternatives materials will be found to replace any that are exhausted. - A theory is said to be strongly anthropocentrist if all the natural values it recognises are related to the satisfaction of preferences felt by human beings. - A theory of value is said to be weakly anthropocentrist if all the natural values which it recognises are related to the influence exerted by a given "felt" preference on the ideals which structure the vision of the world (and on which are essentially based "considered" preferences). (Baker et al., 2004) Sustainable development: Interpretations of sustainability 4/4 • Biosentric approach: - The Earth´s resources has finite limits and consumption, and the economic growth, cannot go on for ever. Otherwise, sooner or later, the Earth will reach the limits of its carrying capacity in relation to its human subsystem (Baker et al., 2004). • Schematic approach: - It should be allowed replacement and flexibility to some extent so that every generation can achieve their own purposes using developed technology (Norton, 2005). An elephant and blind Scientists (basing on traditional issue modified by Esa Tulisalo (Willamo 2005) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0sNj_ooxFWo&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Fblog s.helsinki.fi%2Fparikka%2Fpage%2F2%2F&feature=player_embedded#t=48 Sustainable development: Ecosystem change and human wellbeing (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005.) (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005.) Wellbeing and basic needs 1/3 • Wellbeing: “A context and situation dependent state, comprising basic material for a good life, freedom and choice, health, good social relations, and security.” (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, http://www.millenniumassessment.org//en/index.aspx) Wellbeing and basic needs 2/3 Self– actualisation needs ____________ Aesthetic needs _________________ Cognitive needs ______________________ Esteem needs ___________________________ Belongingness and love needs ________________________________ Security needs _______________________________________ (Maslow, 1954) Wellbeing and basic needs 3/3 (Sharma, 1995.) Teaching, studying and learning: Learning conceptions Behaviorism Cognitivism (Saettler, 1990). (Saettler, 1990). -stimulus – response - specified, quantifiable, terminal behaviors -processes of learning such as * knowledge coding and representation, * information storage and retrieval as well as the * incorporation and integration of new knowledge with previous information Constructivism Socioconstructivism (Schuman, 1996) (Jeronen, 2005) -promotes a more open ended learning experience * is based on Internal and social negotiation *is facilitated by exploration of real world environments and intervention of new environments - provides meaningful, authentic contexts for learning and using the constructed knowledge - requires an understanding of its own thinking process and problem solving methods - requires collaboration among learners and with the teacher -Reflection -Situated knowledge -Transfer -The quality of knowledge changes - Conceptions change Teaching, studying and learning: Sustainable development and environmental studies Sustainable Development (Cf. Alexandre, 2001.) Teaching, studying and learning: Contextual theory and practice Humanistic human conception Constructivistic learning conception Personal metacognitive skills Experiences Personal meanings Contextual teaching conception – transfer – integration – collaboration (students, teachers, parents, society) – active participation (Cf. Cantell, 2001.) Teaching, studying and learning: Goals and contents of Sustainable Development Education ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY - eco-efficiency - maintaining the economic prerequisites for production SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY - ethical modes of production - the quality, safety and accessibility of the living environment - strengthening a community and the sense of place Conserving the ecological, economical, social and cultural values of the environment and natural resources. ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY - the sustainable use of natural resources - conserving bio- and genetic diversity - maintaining nature’s ecological systems CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY - conservation of traditional landscapes and their inherent biotopes - ensuring continuity in constructed environments - cultural diversity (Virtanen & Salonen, 2007.) Teaching, studying and learning: Environmental awareness as a goal 1/8 http://www.globe.gov/r/html/climatechange Teaching, studying and learning:: Environmental awareness as a goal 2/8 (Chawla, 1999) Teaching, studying and learning: Environmental awareness as a goal 3/8 (Palmer ym., 1999) Teaching, studying and learning: Holistic SDE 4/8 Models: – Environmental behaviour model (Hungerford & Volk, 1990) – Onion model (Käpylä, 1995) – Tree model (Palmer, 1998) – The modell for sustainable development education (Åhlberg, 2005) – House model (Jeronen & Kaikkonen, 2002; Jeronen ym., 2009) ( Jeronen & Kaikkonen, 2002; Jeronen ym., 2009). Teaching, studying and learning: Global future as a goal 5/8 (Hicks & Bord, 2001) Teaching, studying and learning: ICT and distance education 6/8 • Developing ICT and distance education concerning SDE in schools is a long process. It requires – an effective technical infrastructure – psychological and cultural changes in teaching and learning. It seems that schools are in the middle of this process: * Teachers do not resist implementing ICT, but it seems that they are not completely convinced of its advantages. * In order to fully utilize ICT, they require better learning materials and digital content in Finnish. * In addition, the teachers have problems integrating ICT in the curriculum, and • they also feel that the schools lack both effective technical facilities and support to maintain these environments. However, distance education is becoming an important component in all educational sectors in Finland. Teaching, studying and learning: ICT and distance education 7/8 Projects in Biology, Geography, EE and ESD in the University of Oulu 2006 onwards Ympäristö ja terveys -yhteistyöverkosto (Myrtti), puheenjohtaja. ViRMo – Virtuaaliset monialaiset opinnot. Virtual Studies in Biology, Geography, Environmental Education and Health Education in Finnish Universities), (Coordinator) http://virmo.jyu.fi/myrtti 2006-2009 HERODOT II: Thematic Network for Geography Teaching and Training, 230402CP-1-2006-UK-Erasmus-TN, Partner. http://herodot.net/ 2003-2005 Thematic Network, Hero(dot)net. 103700-CP-2-2003-1-UK-Erasmus-TN, Partner. 2001-2004 HERO(dot)eNEWS, European Environmental News, 90199-CP-1 001-1-FIMINERVA –M. Co-ordinator. http://cc.oulu.fi/~ejeronen/research/tieVie/index.htm 1998-2001 ESPACE European System for Particle and Astrophysics Cyber Education. (Socrates, Comenius 3.1. AT-57214-2001) Partner. http://www.springerlink.com/content/k20h7288773w644r/fulltext.pdf 1998-2000 HERODOT Using the Web in Teaching Geography (Socrates, Open and Distance Learning ODL). Partner. http://cc.oulu.fi/~ejeronen/research/herodot/index.htm 1998 EuMEDEA . On-line Teacher Training Course on Environmental Education (Socrates, Erasmus Programme) Partner. http://www.itc.staranzano.go.it/progetti/eumedea/index.htm 1997-2000 ECOSCHOOL (Socrates, Erasmus, European Module, EM). Project leader. Teaching, studying and learning: ICT and distance education 8/8 • In our projects, we have found some pedagogical features that are good to consider when teaching on distance education. • In order to create a rewarding online learning experience, evaluation needs to be combined with an effective learner-centred pedagogy. • When teachers – set clearly defined learning goals and expected outcomes, – develop criteria for evaluation, and – use multiple methods of assessing learning and teaching, they promote an environment that is conducive to learning. By providing activities and leaving time for discussion, a dynamic community of learners can be constructed. Conclusion • Finally, organization strategies for SDE such as – scheduled activities and messages from students and teachers form an integral part of the learning experience. – ongoing communication and interaction, and clear criteria in assessment and evaluation are imperative when supporting students´ studying and learning processes. – scaffolding approach supports a student´s motivation and gives good personal experiences. – consequently, interaction between students will develop. References 1/3 • • • • • • • • • • • Alexandre, F. (2001). Interdisciplinarity in geographical education: Searching for a new synthesis. In Houtsonen, L., &Tammilehto, M. (Eds.) Innovative Practices in Geographical Education Proceedings Helsinki Symposium IGU Commission on Geographical Education, August 6-10 2001. Department of Geography, University of Helsinki. 58. Azapagic, A., Perdan, S. & Shallcross, D.(2005). How much do engineering students know about sustainable development? European journal of engineering education 30 (1), pp. 1-19. Baker, S., Kousis, M., Richardson, D. & Young, S. (2004). The politics of sustainable development. Theory, policy and practice within the European Union. London: Routledge. Cantell, H. (2001). How concepts of learning and teaching affect geography education. Teoksessa L. Houtsonen & M.Tammilehto (toim.) Innovative Practices in Geographical Education Proceedings Helsinki Symposium IGU Commission on Geographical Education, August 6-10 2001. Department of Geography, University of Helsinki. 92. Chawla, L. (1999). Life paths into effective environmental action. The Journal of Environmental Education 31, (1), 15-26. Hicks, D. & A. Bord (2001). Learning about global issues:why most educators only make things worse. Environmental Education Research 7, (4), 414-425. Hungerford, H.R. & Volk, T.L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8–21. Jeronen, E. (2005). 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