Participative Management Power Point

Participative Management
By: Melissa Hawkins
Objectives of Presentation
• Provide a definition
• Describe elements a participative management
system should include
• Discuss the positive attributes
• Discuss the negative attributes
• Show if participative management is preferred by
either gender
• Discuss if culture plays a role in participative
• Discuss which industries work best with
participative management
• “Participative management is a kind of
management style in which subordinates share a
significant degree of decision making power with
their superiors” (Robbins, cited in Tung-Chun, 1997, p. 677)
• “the goal of providing the worker with
managerial values through participation in
operational decisions, communications, or
benefits” (Kovach, Sands Jr. & Brooks, 1981, p. 5)
Necessary Elements
• Ward (1997) argues that for Participative
management to be successful 3 items need to be
communicated to workers: Criteria,
Contribution & Choice
• Ward (1997) defines criteria as a set of
boundaries put into effect by the manager that
informs employees of what their ideas must
• Ward (1997) defines contribution as
implementing employee ideas in the decision
making process
• Ward (1997) describes choice as giving
employees the opportunity to make choices
regarding company decisions
Necessary Elements
• Daft (2004) indicates that participative
management needs to focus on a team approach
to working versus the typical management status
• Nowicki and Summerss (2008) stress the need
for clear communication from management
Positive Attributes
• High job satisfaction (Soonhee, 2002)
• “offer solutions to problems at reasonable costs”
(McCaffrey, Faeman, & Hart, 1995, p. 604)
• “allow for greater input from those who have
specialized knowledge or expertise” (McCaffrey, Faeman, & Hart,
1995, p. 606)
• “individuals have a greater commitment to
decisions they helped make” (McCaffrey, Faeman, & Hart, 1995, p. 606)
• greater flexibility of company policies (McCaffrey, Faeman, &
Hart, 1995, p. 607)
Positive Attributes
• Saves costs by eliminating unnecessary
managerial roles (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart, 1995)
• “Repeated cooperation/collaboration likely leads
to respect and trust” (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart, 1995, p. 612)
• “enhances employee’s personal identification
with a job” (Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981, p. 6)
• “builds employee motivation” (Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981, p. 6)
Negative Attributes
• Can take too much time to make important
decisions (Nowicki & Summers, 2008)
• Poor communication from the manager to staff
(Nowicki & Summers, 2008)
• Increases in productivity may not occur when
participation goes up (Powell & Schlacter, 1971)
• “barriers to particpative systems are embedded
in social, economic, and political principles”
(McCaffrey, Faeman, & Hart, 1995, p. 603)
Negative Attributes
• “Reduces the chances of control of situations by
managers” (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart, 1995, p. 604)
• People don’t want to work together because they
do not like each other (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart, 1995)
• “exceptionally difficult to develop” (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart,
1995, p. 605)
• Research conducted on participative
management is conflicted (McCaffery, Faeman, & Hart, 1995)
Gender & Participative Managment
• Women in management/leadership positions are found
to use participative approaches more than men (Jago & Vroom,
1982; Paris, 2004)
• Women are found to be less likely violate rules that are
established to support change actions because they
recognize the need for commitment to decisions (Jago & Vroom,
• Women typically use groups to come to decisions (Jago & Vroom,
• Men tend to lead with authoritarian approaches (Jago & Vroom,
1982; Paris, 2004)
• Women that lead with authoritarian approaches are
viewed negatively while men are not (Jago & Vroom, 1982)
Culture & Participative Managment
• Cultures that recognize gender egalitarianism &
low power distance seem to value teamwork as
an important method for good leadership (Paris, 2004)
• It has been shown through research that
Taiwanese organizations offering participative
opportunities for employees promotes job
satisfaction & lower turnover rates (Huang, 1997)
Culture & Participative Managment
• Japanese managers “value their employees and
work with them as a critical resource”. (Scott, 1981, p. 27)
• Japanese management believes strongly in the
need for cooperation between managers &
workers for productive work environments (Scott, 1981)
• In West Germany participative management
schemes are mandated by law (Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981)
Industry & Participative Management
• Blue Collar work environments have not had
success with participative management
strategies(Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981)
• Unions do not like participative management
(Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981)
• Why? Varying education & job satisfaction is
found away from the job (Kovach, Sands Jr., & Brooks, 1981)
Industry & Participative Managment
• Texas Instruments has a participative
management model that was designed to help
improve business operations (Myers, 1968)
• Texas Instruments focused on job enrichment to
induce employee motivation (Myers, 1968)
• The Texas Instrument model is: Planning, doing,
and control(Myers, 1968)
Motorola & Participative Management
• Implemented into each plant one at a time with
great success
• 25% more output from equipment
• High cooperation between employees
• When vacancies occur/disrupt work day, employees
eagerly cover the slack
• Improved communication between different shifts
• Lower turnover rate & higher job satisfaction
• Rest periods/breaks are taken on time
• Weaker employees are naturally weeded out
(Scott, 1981)
Daft, R. L. (2004). Theory Z: Opening the Door for Participative Management. Academy of Management Executive, 18(4), 117-121.
Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Huang, T. (1997). The Effect of Participative Management on Organizational Performance: The Case of Taiwan. International Journal of
Human Resource Management, 8(5), 677-689. Doi: 10.1080/0956851997341450
Jago, A. G., & Vroom, V. H. (1982). Sex Differences in the Incidence and Evaluation of Participative Leader Behavior. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 67(6), 776-783. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Kovach, K. A., Sands Jr., B. F., & Brooks, W. W. (1981) Management by Whom?-Trends in Participative Management. Advanced
Management Journal, 46(1), 4-13. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
McCaffery, D. P., Faerman, S. R., & Hart, D. W. (1995) The Appeal and Difficulties of Participative Systems. Organization Science, 6(6)
603-627. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Myers, M. S. (1968) Every Employee a Manger. California Management Review, 10(3) 9-20. Retrieved from Business Source Premier
Nowicki, M., & Summers, J. (2008) When Participative Management Leads to Garbled Communication. Healthcare Financial
Management, 62(2) 118-120. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Paris, L. D. (2004) The Effects of Gender and Culture on Implicit Leadership Theories: A Cross-cultural Study. Academy of Management
Proceedings, B1-B6. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Powell, R. M. & Schlacter, J. L. (1971) Participative Management a Panacea?. Academy of Management Journal, 14(2) 165-173. Retrieved
from Business Source Premier database.
Scott, W. B. (1981) Participative Management at Motorola-the Results. Management Review, 70(7) 26-29. Retrieved from Business
Source Premier database.
Soonhee, K. (2002) Participative Management and Job Satisfaction: Lessons for Management Leadership. Public Administration
Review, 62(2) 231-241. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Ward, B. (1997) The Three C’s of Participative Management. Canadian Manager, 22(4) 21-23. Retrieved from Business Source Premier

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