Slide 1

Report
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF
READING AND READING DISABILITIES
Olga Chuntonov
03/05/13
•
1
•
CONQUER Collaborative laboratory (Cognitive Neuro-engineering and
Quantitative Experimental Research), the School of Biomedical Engineering,
Science & Health Systems, Drexel University.
Edmond J. Safra Brain Research in Learning Disabilities Laboratory,
Department of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa.
LAYOUT







The brain
The reading process
Dyslexia
Typical brain activation
Dyslexic brain activation
Brain plasticity and training
Reading Acceleration Program
2
THE BRAIN
3
THE BRAIN


The brain is the center of
the nervous system
Functions:
Information processing
 Perception
 Learning and memory
 Motor control

4
Image from Wikipedia
WHAT IS THE BRAIN MADE OF?


Neurons - the nerve cells. A typical adult human brain has
about 100 billion neurons, each connected by synapses to
several thousand other neurons
Glial cells - provide structural and metabolic support
5
Neurons image courtesy of Rebecca Radcliff
READING
Reading is an interpretation of graphic symbols
 A complex cognitive skill, based on decoding,
comprehension and fluency sub-skills

6
WHAT IS DYSLEXIA?
Dys = difficulty
Lexia = language
Rudolf Berlin of Stuttgart,
Germany, in 1887
7
SYMPTOMS

Difficulties with:





Recognition of individual sounds in words
Naming objects / letter …
Spelling
Reading fluently
Reading unfamiliar words (decoding difficulties)
8
DYSLEXIA - DEFINITION


Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is
neurobiological in origin
It is characterized by
inaccurate and/or influent reading
 poor spelling abilities



despite adequate intelligence, education, and
socioeconomic status
Genetic predisposition
(Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003; Smith-Spark & Fisk, 2007; Berninger et al., 2001;
Eckert, 2004; OECD, 2002; Krafnick et al., 2010)
9
FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH DYSLEXIA

George Washington

Leonardo da Vinci

Thomas Jefferson

Pablo Picasso

John F. Kennedy

Hans Christian Andersen

Winston Churchill

Agatha Christie

Albert Einstein

John Lennon

Pierre Curie

Steven Spielberg

Alexander Graham Bell

Whoopi Goldberg

Henry Ford

Cher
http://www.dyslexia.com/famous.htm
10
5. Broca’s area:
3. Angular gyrus:
The early stages of
Phonological
wordREADING
interpretation
TYPICAL
BRAIN ACTIVATION DURING
processing and
(semantic processing)
language
Supramarginal
production;
gyrus:
(semantic aspects
phonological and
of language)
articulatory processing
of words
1. Prefrontal
lobe:
Directing
attention to
the reading
task
4. Wernicke’s
area:
2. Primary
The full meaning
a
visual of
areas:
written word
Theis brain
understood
perceives the
(representation
of words
sight of
phonetic sequences)
11
DYSLEXIC BRAIN ACTIVATION DURING READING
12
S&B Shaywitz , 2008
BRAIN PLASTICITY
Neuroplasticity - long lasting structural and
functional changes in the brain, that occur
following experience
 Our brains show the highest degree of plasticity
during the early phases of life, however it is
capable of adapting and growing even in
adulthood

(Jessberger & Gage, 2008; Draganski & May, 2008; Eriksson et al., 1998; Fischer, 2008;
Gould, et al., 1999; Gross, 2000; Krafnick, et al., 2010; Poldrack, 2000; Stiles, 2000; Will
et al., 2007; Ilg et al., 2008; Trachtenberg et al., 2002)
13
Is it possible, by means of intervention, to create
brain reorganization in such a way that will
enable dyslexic individuals to read fluently or at
least reduce the difficulty?
14
YES!

Training can lead to behavioral improvements (fluency,
reading speed and accuracy)and brain activation
changes for reading.

Simos et al. (2002): Following 80 hours of training children
improved in basic reading tests, reaching average scores.
Increase in activity in the left posterior brain area was
detected.

Temple et al. (2003): After 8-weeks of computerized training
children demonstrated improvement in language and
reading ability, reaching the normal range. In addition,
activity in left temporo-parietal brain area was increased.

Shaywitz et al. (2004): 8 months of one-on-one daily
trainings lead to increased reading fluency and brain
activation changes towards normalization.
(Penolazzi et al., 2010; Shaywitz et al., 2004; Simos et al., 2002; Simos, et al., 2007; Spironelli et al.,
2010, Temple et al., 2003)
15
READING ACCELERATION PROGRAM (RAP)


Based on the “acceleration phenomenon”:
there is a gap between ability and
performance within each individual (Breznitz,
2006 for review)
Typical readers, whose reading pace is
controlled by the program, when forced to
read in a faster pace than usual increase the
reading speed, accuracy and comprehension
(Breznitz & Nevat 2004)
16
THE TRAINING
DEMONSTRATION - TRAINING
Whole grains are an important part of a balanced
diet. They should be eaten on a daily basis. Many
of your favorite cereals contain whole grains.
DEMONSTRATION - TRAINING
When should whole grains be eaten?
1 on a daily basis
2 on a weekly basis
3 on a hourly basis
0
Didn’t finish reading
20
Contact details: [email protected]

similar documents