Patterns and Performances in Speech and Music

Report
Patterns and Performances
in Speech and Music
Mark Liberman
University of Pennsylvania
http://ling.upenn.edu/~myl
Skip-a to my Lou
(Ruth Crawford Seeger, American Folk Songs for Children, 1938)
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
2
“…this song has hundreds of stanzas and is always picking up new ones. One
collector alone gives 150, from which the above 22 were selected as
encouragement to further improvisation."
E
X
X
X
X
little
X
X
red
X
C
X
X
X
wa-
X
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
pig
in the parcat
in the but-ter
rab-bit in the corn
hogs in the po-ta- to
dad's
old
hat
1/27/2005
X
X
gon
X
X
X
X
lour
milk
field
patch
and
E
X
X
X
X
pain-
X
X
ted
G
X
X
X
X
blue
E
G
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
what'll I
do
lapping up
cream
big as a
mule
rooting up
corn
ma- ma's old
shoe
Language and Poetic Form
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(pitches)
(1/4 notes)
(1/8 notes)
(1/16 notes)
X
(pitches)
(1/4 notes)
(1/4 notes)
(1/16 notes)
3
You can close your eyes (James Taylor, 1971)
X
. | X
Well, the
sun
.
is
X
.
X . X .
| X
surely sink-
.
X
.
X
in'
.
X
X
but
. | X
the
moon
.
is
X
.
X . X .
| X
slowly ris-
.
X
.
X
ing.
.
X
.
| X
X
. | X
So this
.
X
old
.
X . X .
| X
world must still
.
be
X
.
X . X
spinnin'
.
| X
XXX | XXX
round,
.
X
.
| X
X
. |
and
1/27/2005
X
I
.
X
.
X .
still
X
.
| X
love
.
X
you.
Language and Poetic Form
.
X
. | X
down,
XXX | XXX
XXX | XXX
XXX | XXX
4
(refrain)
X
. | X
So close
X
You
.
X
.
can
X
.
X .
your
X
.
| X
eyes,
.
X
.
X
.
X . X
close your
.
| X
eyes,
.
X
.
X
. X .
| XXXX | XXXX |
it's all right.
.
X
songs,
.
X
.
X
I
.
X
.
don't know
. |
and
X
I
. |
But
X
I
. | X
and you
1/27/2005
.
| X
love
.
X
.
|
X .
no
X
.
X
can't
.
X .
sing the
X
.
| X
blues
.
X
.
X
an-
. X
| XXXX
y-more.
.
can
X
.
X . X .
| X
sing this song,
.
X
.
X
.
.
can
X
.
X . X .
| X
sing this
song
.
X
.
Language and Poetic Form
X
when
X
X
. X
I'm
| X
gone
XXX |
5
“Syncopation in Rock,” David Temperley. Popular Music 18(1), 1999.
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
6
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
7
Jodies
• Rhymed couplets
– used in counting cadence while marching
– traditional or improvised
• History?
– References back to Civil War
– Attributed to
Pvt. Willie Duckworth
Fort Slocum, N.Y., May 1944
“Duckworth cadence”
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
8
Cadence calls are songs (usually delivered in an eight
count movement) that the military sing when marching
or running. The songs require a Caller, who normally
sets the pace and leads the formation. The caller starts
each line on his left foot. The formation then repeats the
line, starting on the left foot. If everything goes well, the
caller and the formation develop a sort of rapport. The
effect can be mesmerizing. The way a unit sounds while
running or marching tends to reflect on that unit's
morale and leadership.
-Drill Sgt. Timothy P. Dunnigan, US Army
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
9
Who’s Jody?
The guy back home who has the things a soldier leaves behind:
Got a letter in the mail
Go to war or go to jail
Ain't no use in going back
Jody's got your Cadillac
I used to date a beauty queen
Now I date my M-16
Ain't no use in calling home
Jody's got your girl and gone
Ain't no use in lookin' down
Ain't no discharge on the ground
1/27/2005
Ain't no use in feeling blue
Jody's got your sister too
Language and Poetic Form
10
Examples
Traditional call and response couplet
Couplets embedded in other cadence counts
WWII era (?)
Role in group running
Many verses, old and new
stories
boasts
complaints, teasing, etc.
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
11
Other traditional couplets
Content can be serious or silly, subversive or gung-ho.
Syllable counts range from 7 to 11.
Jesse James said before he died
There's five things that he wanted to ride
Bicycle, tricycle, automobile
A one-legged hooker and a ferris wheel
I don't know but I been told
If you die you don't get old
If I die in the combat zone
Box me up and ship me home
Birdie birdie in the sky
Dropped some whitewash in my eye
I won't fuss and I won't cry
I'm just glad that cows can't fly.
1/27/2005
Jesse James said in his final will
He had five things that he wanted to kill
A lion, a tiger, a kangaroo
A long haired hippie, and a D.I. too
And if'n he could kill just one
He'd kill the instructor, let the hippie run
Language and Poetic Form
12
Acoustic and metrical patterns?
D
D
x
x
x
Ain't no
1/27/2005
B
x
x
use
G
x
in
B
B
D
x
x
x
x
x
go...ing home
Language and Poetic Form
x
13
Acoustic Pattern
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
14
Where are the claps?
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
15
Line 2
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
16
Line 3
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
17
Line 4
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
18
Another couplet
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
19
Line 2
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
20
Line 3
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
21
Line 4
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
22
“Habanera rhythm” (from contradanza habanera):
8 beats divided as 3+3+2 or 3+(1+2)+2 or (1+2)+(1+2)+2
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 ...
o
o o
o
o
o o
o
o
o o
o o
o
o o
o o
o
o
Musical notations:
Common theme:
Positions 1,4,7 of 8 are strong
1 & 4 may be “resolved” onto 2 & 5
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
23
Slippin’ and a-Slidin’ (Little Richard)
Habanera rhythm in the brass
1/27/2005
Language and Poetic Form
24
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 ...
o
o o
o
o
o o
o
o
o o
o o
o
o o
o o
o
o
1 2 3
4 5 6
o
o
o
o o
slippin and a slid-
1 2 3
o
o
been told
4
o
a
1/27/2005
7 8 1
2 3 4 5 6
o
o
o
o
o
o o
in peepin and a hid-
7 8
o
o
in
5 6 7
8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
o
o
o
o
o
o
long time ago
Language and Poetic Form
25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
I been told
baby you been bold I won’t
1/27/2005
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
be your fool no more
Language and Poetic Form
26
You can close your eyes (James Taylor, 1971)
X
. | X
Well, the
sun
.
is
X
.
X . X .
| X
surely sink-
.
X
.
X
in'
.
X
X
but
. | X
the
moon
.
is
X
.
X . X .
| X
slowly ris-
.
X
.
X
ing.
.
X
.
| X
X
. | X
So this
.
X
old
.
X . X .
| X
world must still
.
be
X
.
X . X
spinnin'
.
| X
XXX | XXX
round,
.
X
.
| X
X
. |
and
1/27/2005
X
I
.
X
.
X .
still
X
.
| X
love
.
X
you.
Language and Poetic Form
.
X
. | X
down,
XXX | XXX
XXX | XXX
XXX | XXX
27
(refrain)
X
. | X
So close
X
You
.
X
.
can
X
.
X .
your
X
.
| X
eyes,
.
X
.
X
.
X . X
close your
.
| X
eyes,
.
X
.
X
. X .
| XXXX | XXXX |
it's all right.
.
X
songs,
.
X
.
X
I
.
X
.
don't know
. |
and
X
I
. |
But
X
I
. | X
and you
1/27/2005
.
| X
love
.
X
.
|
X .
no
X
.
X
can't
.
X .
sing the
X
.
| X
blues
.
X
.
X
an-
. X
| XXXX
y-more.
.
can
X
.
X . X .
| X
sing this song,
.
X
.
X
.
.
can
X
.
X . X .
| X
sing this
song
.
X
.
Language and Poetic Form
X
when
X
X
. X
I'm
| X
gone
XXX |
28

similar documents