Slide 1

Human Geography: People &
Chapter 4
Section 1
The Elements
of Culture
• The way of life of a group of people with
common traditions, interests, and beliefs.
• The total knowledge, shared attitudes, and
behaviors of the members of a specific
• What aspects are included in your culture?
• What aspects of our culture have we
borrowed from others?
• What aspects have other cultures borrowed
from us?
Culture Involves these Factors
• Food & shelter
• Religion
• Relationships to family &
• Language
• Education
• Security/protection
• Political & social
• Creative expression
• Society – a group that shares a geographic
region, a sense of identity, and a culture
• Ethnic group – group that shares a language,
customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic
group has an identity as a separate group of
people within the region where they live.
Cultural Change
• Cultural Diffusion – the spread of people,
ideas, practices, and goods from one
culture to another.
Cultural Change
• Acculturation – adapting traits from other
cultures to your own (ex. wearing jeans
instead of traditional garments)
• Cultural contacts – travel & trade, migration
Cultural Barriers/Contacts
In the past…
• Natural Barriers (deserts, mountains, rainforest,
• People’s beliefs – lack of understanding leads to
fear or mistrust (That is why the Chinese built the
Great Wall of China)
Cultural Barriers/Contacts
• Technology helps to overcome barriers
(telephone, internet, television)
• Material culture - all physical, tangible
objects made and used by members of a
cultural group, such as clothing, building,
tools, instruments, furniture, and artwork;
visible aspects of culture
• Nonmaterial culture – wide range of tales,
songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and
customs that passes from generation to
generation as part of oral or written tradition
• One of the most important
aspects of culture
• Allows people within a culture to
communicate with each other
• Between 3,000 and 6,500
languages spoken in the world
• Dialect – reflects changes in
speech patterns related to class,
region, or other cultural changes
(ex. Southern drawl, a Boston
Hello in Major World Languages
Ni hao
Al salaam a'alaykum
• Consists of a belief in a supernatural power
or powers that are regarded as creators
and maintainers of the universe
3 Types of Religions
• Monotheistic - belief in one
god (Christianity, Judaism,
• Polytheistic – belief in many
gods (Hinduism)
• Animistic or traditional – often
with a belief in divine forces in
Major World Religions
• Judaism
• Christianity
• Buddhism
• Islam
• Hinduism
• Confucianism,
Taoism, Shinto
Section 2
• The study of populations
including birth rates,
death rates, and
World Population
World Population
• World Population
March 12, 2014 estimate
From population clock @
Scientists estimate the population will be:
-8 billion by 2025
Population Pyramid
• A way to analyze population that shows the
age and sex distribution of a population
Population Distribution
• The population pattern or where people live.
• The continents are not evenly populated.
• 2/3rds of the world’s people live in the zone between 20°N
and 60°N latitude
• Most people live where the soil is fertile, water is available
and the climate is favorable for growing crops and raising
Urban-Rural Mix
• More than ½ of world’s people live in rural areas
• Number is changing rapidly because more people are
moving into cities
• 26 giant cities, called megacities, are home to total of
more than 250 million people
• Largest is Tokyo, Japan with over 32 million people
• Push factors – those that cause
people to leave their homeland
– Environmental conditions such
as drought or other natural
– War
– Persecution of certain groups of
people for ethnic or religious
• More than 1 million
Rwandans left their country
for other parts of Africa
because of civil war in 1994
• Pull factors
– Draw or attract people
to another location
– Countries with good
opportunities and high
salaries are the likely
destinations for
– Favorable climate is
another pull factor
Population Density
• The average number of people living in a square mile.
• Canada – 9 people per square mile
• United States – 84 people per square mile
• Bangladesh – 2,806 people per square mile
Population Density
• Comparing States
– Alaska - 1 person
per square mile
– Kentucky – 107
people per square
– New Jersey –
1,170 people per
square mile
Carrying Capacity
• Number of
organisms a piece of
land can support
• Factors that affect
carrying capacity
– Fertile land
– Level of technology
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
• When birth and death rates
are more or less equal.
• The ending of population
growth when birth and death
rates are equal.
• This would require an
average number of 2.3
children per family.
Countries with negative natural increase or zero
negative increase in population...
Ukraine: 0.8% natural decrease annually; 28% total population decrease by 2050
Russia: -0.6%; -22%
Belarus -0.6%; -12%
Bulgaria -0.5%; -34%
Latvia -0.5%; -23%
Lithuania -0.4%; -15%
Hungary -0.3%; -11%
Romania -0.2%; -29%
Estonia -0.2%; -23%
Moldova -0.2%; -21%
Croatia -0.2%; -14%
Germany -0.2%; -9%
Czech Republic -0.1%; -8%
Japan 0%; -21%
Poland 0%; -17%
Slovakia 0%; -12%
Austria 0%; 8% increase
Italy 0%; -5%
Slovenia 0%; -5%
Greece 0%; -4%
Population Growth Rates
• Rapid population growth presents many
challenges including:
– Producing enough food to feed the growing population
– Shortages of clothing and housing
– Nonrenewable resources are being used up at a rapid
– Pollution
– Crime
– Three billion people on the planet struggle to survive
on less than $3 a day
Section 3
Nations of the World
• State – an independent unit that occupies a
specific territory and has full control of its internal
& external affairs (often the term “country” is used
to mean state)
• Nation – a group of people with a common
culture living in a territory and having a strong
sense of unity
• Nation-state – when a nation and a state occupy
the same territory
• Stateless nations include Palestinians, Kurds, &
Types of Government
• Democracy/Federal Republic – U.S.A.
• Monarchy – United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia,
Oman, Norway
• Dictatorship – North Korea, Belarus
(Republic in name, actually a dictatorship)
• Communism – China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam
• Theocracy – Iran, Saudi Arabia
Geographic Characteristics of
• Size (physical size does not always equal wealth
& power)
Geo. Characteristics
Of Nations
Shape (The shape can
determine how easily it
can be governed, etc.)
Compact – Germany,
Long – Chile,
Fragmented – Japan
Geographic Characteristics
of Nations
• Location
– What are the disadvantages of a landlocked country
(ex. Bolivia)?
National Boundaries
• Natural boundaries
– Rio Grande forms
border between
Mexico and part of
United States
• Artificial boundaries
– 49°N latitude line
separate U.S. and
Section 4
Urban Geography
• The study of how people use space in cities.
• Urban area develops around a main city called
the central city.
• The built-up area around the central city may
include suburbs
• Smaller cities with open land between them and
the central city are called exurbs
• Together the city, suburbs, and exurbs form a
metropolitan area
Urban Geography
• Megalopolis – formed
when several
metropolitan areas
grow together
• Ex. – Boswash –
includes Boston, New
York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, &
Washington D.C.
Land Use Patterns
Basic land use patterns found in all cities:
• Residential – single-family housing &
• Industrial – manufacturing of goods
• Commercial – used for private business
and the buying and selling of retail products
• The core of the city is the central business
district (CBD)
Models of Urban
Section 5
• Consists of the production and exchange of
goods and services among a group of
• Operate at local, regional, national, or
international levels
Types of Economic Systems
Traditional (barter)
Command (planned, communism)
Market (demand, capitalism)
Mixed (combination of command and
Levels of the Economic Activity
• Primary – extracts or harvest products from
the Earth
ex. Agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing
Levels of the Economic Activity
• Secondary – manufactures finished goods
ex. Automobile production, construction,
engineering, textile production
Levels of the Economic Activity
• Tertiary – service industry
ex. Retail and wholesale sales,
entertainment, restaurants, transportation,
tourism, banking, insurance, healthcare,
Levels of the Economic Activity
• Quaternary – intellectual activities
ex.Government, culture, scientific research,
education, information technology
Developed Countries
Good educational systems
Widely available health care
Many manufacturing and service industries
Participates in international trade
Modern farming technology
Modern telecommunications
Developed Countries
• World’s wealthiest countries
• Includes most of the countries in Europe,
the U.S., Canada, Japan, Australia,
Singapore and others
Developing Countries
Many people live by subsistence farming
Few manufacturing and service industries
Poverty and unemployment are widespread
Limited health services
Overcrowded schools
Low literacy rate
Modern telecommunication seldom found outside of major
• Export minerals and agricultural products to developed
Developing Countries
• World’s poorer countries
• Includes about ¾ of the world’s people.

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