Human Geography: People & Places Chapter 4 Section 1 The Elements of Culture Culture • The way of life of a group of people with common traditions, interests, and beliefs. • The total knowledge, shared attitudes, and behaviors of the members of a specific group. Culture • What aspects are included in your culture? • What aspects of our culture have we borrowed from others? • What aspects have other cultures borrowed from us? Culture Involves these Factors • Food & shelter • Religion • Relationships to family & others • Language • Education • Security/protection • Political & social organization • Creative expression http://www.zillow.com/homedetails/51 5-N-County-Rd-Palm-Beach-FL33480/46843354_zpid/ Culture • Society – a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture • Ethnic group – group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live. Cultural Change • Cultural Diffusion – the spread of people, ideas, practices, and goods from one culture to another. Cultural Change • Acculturation – adapting traits from other cultures to your own (ex. wearing jeans instead of traditional garments) • Cultural contacts – travel & trade, migration Cultural Barriers/Contacts In the past… • Natural Barriers (deserts, mountains, rainforest, oceans) • People’s beliefs – lack of understanding leads to fear or mistrust (That is why the Chinese built the Great Wall of China) Cultural Barriers/Contacts Today… • Technology helps to overcome barriers (telephone, internet, television) Culture • Material culture - all physical, tangible objects made and used by members of a cultural group, such as clothing, building, tools, instruments, furniture, and artwork; visible aspects of culture • Nonmaterial culture – wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and customs that passes from generation to generation as part of oral or written tradition Language • One of the most important aspects of culture • Allows people within a culture to communicate with each other • Between 3,000 and 6,500 languages spoken in the world today • Dialect – reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes (ex. Southern drawl, a Boston accent) Hello in Major World Languages • • • • • • • Chinese English Hindi Russian Spanish Arabic Japanese Ni hao Hello Namasthe Zdravstvuite Hola Al salaam a'alaykum Konnichiwa Religion • Consists of a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as creators and maintainers of the universe 3 Types of Religions • Monotheistic - belief in one god (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) • Polytheistic – belief in many gods (Hinduism) • Animistic or traditional – often with a belief in divine forces in nature Major World Religions • Judaism • Christianity • Buddhism • Islam • Hinduism • Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto Section 2 Population Geography Demography • The study of populations including birth rates, death rates, and migration. World Population World Population • World Population 7,152,560,533 March 12, 2014 estimate From population clock @ www.census.gov Scientists estimate the population will be: -8 billion by 2025 Population Pyramid • A way to analyze population that shows the age and sex distribution of a population Population Distribution • The population pattern or where people live. • The continents are not evenly populated. • 2/3rds of the world’s people live in the zone between 20°N and 60°N latitude • Most people live where the soil is fertile, water is available and the climate is favorable for growing crops and raising animals Urban-Rural Mix • More than ½ of world’s people live in rural areas • Number is changing rapidly because more people are moving into cities • 26 giant cities, called megacities, are home to total of more than 250 million people • Largest is Tokyo, Japan with over 32 million people Migration • Push factors – those that cause people to leave their homeland – Environmental conditions such as drought or other natural disasters – War – Persecution of certain groups of people for ethnic or religious reasons • More than 1 million Rwandans left their country for other parts of Africa because of civil war in 1994 Migration • Pull factors – Draw or attract people to another location – Countries with good economic opportunities and high salaries are the likely destinations for migrants – Favorable climate is another pull factor Population Density • The average number of people living in a square mile. • Canada – 9 people per square mile • United States – 84 people per square mile • Bangladesh – 2,806 people per square mile Population Density • Comparing States – Alaska - 1 person per square mile – Kentucky – 107 people per square mile – New Jersey – 1,170 people per square mile Carrying Capacity • Number of organisms a piece of land can support • Factors that affect carrying capacity include: – Fertile land – Level of technology Zero Population Growth (ZPG) • When birth and death rates are more or less equal. • The ending of population growth when birth and death rates are equal. • This would require an average number of 2.3 children per family. Countries with negative natural increase or zero negative increase in population... • Ukraine: 0.8% natural decrease annually; 28% total population decrease by 2050 Russia: -0.6%; -22% Belarus -0.6%; -12% Bulgaria -0.5%; -34% Latvia -0.5%; -23% Lithuania -0.4%; -15% Hungary -0.3%; -11% Romania -0.2%; -29% Estonia -0.2%; -23% Moldova -0.2%; -21% Croatia -0.2%; -14% Germany -0.2%; -9% Czech Republic -0.1%; -8% Japan 0%; -21% Poland 0%; -17% Slovakia 0%; -12% Austria 0%; 8% increase Italy 0%; -5% Slovenia 0%; -5% Greece 0%; -4% Population Growth Rates • Rapid population growth presents many challenges including: – Producing enough food to feed the growing population – Shortages of clothing and housing – Nonrenewable resources are being used up at a rapid pace – Pollution – Crime – Three billion people on the planet struggle to survive on less than $3 a day Section 3 Political Geography Nations of the World • State – an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal & external affairs (often the term “country” is used to mean state) • Nation – a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity • Nation-state – when a nation and a state occupy the same territory • Stateless nations include Palestinians, Kurds, & Basques Types of Government • Democracy/Federal Republic – U.S.A. • Monarchy – United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Norway • Dictatorship – North Korea, Belarus (Republic in name, actually a dictatorship) • Communism – China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam • Theocracy – Iran, Saudi Arabia Geographic Characteristics of Nations • Size (physical size does not always equal wealth & power) Geo. Characteristics Of Nations Shape (The shape can determine how easily it can be governed, etc.) Compact – Germany, Long – Chile, Fragmented – Japan Geographic Characteristics of Nations • Location – What are the disadvantages of a landlocked country (ex. Bolivia)? National Boundaries • Natural boundaries – Rio Grande forms border between Mexico and part of United States • Artificial boundaries – 49°N latitude line separate U.S. and Canada Section 4 Urban Geography Urban Geography • The study of how people use space in cities. • Urban area develops around a main city called the central city. • The built-up area around the central city may include suburbs • Smaller cities with open land between them and the central city are called exurbs • Together the city, suburbs, and exurbs form a metropolitan area Urban Geography • Megalopolis – formed when several metropolitan areas grow together • Ex. – Boswash – includes Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, & Washington D.C. Land Use Patterns Basic land use patterns found in all cities: • Residential – single-family housing & apartments • Industrial – manufacturing of goods • Commercial – used for private business and the buying and selling of retail products • The core of the city is the central business district (CBD) Models of Urban Structure Section 5 Economic Geography Economy • Consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people. • Operate at local, regional, national, or international levels Types of Economic Systems • • • • Traditional (barter) Command (planned, communism) Market (demand, capitalism) Mixed (combination of command and market) Levels of the Economic Activity • Primary – extracts or harvest products from the Earth ex. Agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing Levels of the Economic Activity • Secondary – manufactures finished goods ex. Automobile production, construction, engineering, textile production Levels of the Economic Activity • Tertiary – service industry ex. Retail and wholesale sales, entertainment, restaurants, transportation, tourism, banking, insurance, healthcare, law Levels of the Economic Activity • Quaternary – intellectual activities ex.Government, culture, scientific research, education, information technology Developed Countries • • • • • • • Good educational systems Widely available health care Many manufacturing and service industries Industrialization Participates in international trade Modern farming technology Modern telecommunications Developed Countries • World’s wealthiest countries • Includes most of the countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Japan, Australia, Singapore and others Developing Countries • • • • • • • Many people live by subsistence farming Few manufacturing and service industries Poverty and unemployment are widespread Limited health services Overcrowded schools Low literacy rate Modern telecommunication seldom found outside of major cities • Export minerals and agricultural products to developed countries Developing Countries • World’s poorer countries • Includes about ¾ of the world’s people.