Causes of Blindness Worldwide

Report
Causes of Blindness
Worldwide
Carmen Leyva
Vicki Herrin
Hampton Huddleston
Global causes of blindness as a percentage of total
blindness in 2002
0%
4%
4%
Cataract
13%
Glaucoma
AMD
48%
5%
5%
Corneal Opacities
Diabetic
retinopathy
9%
Childhood
blindness
12%
Trachoma
Onchocerciasis
Others
Cataracts
A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural
lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil.
The lens works much like a camera lens,
focusing light onto the retina at the back of
the eye. The lens also adjusts the eye's focus,
letting us see things clearly both up close and
far away.
The lens is mostly made of water and
protein. The protein is arranged in a precise
way that keeps the lens clear and lets light
pass through it.
Three Types:
Subcapsular cataract
Nuclear cataract
Cortical cataract
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kid with cataract.jpg
normal_eye.jpg
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An intraocular
lens (IOL) is
implanted in
the eye in
place of the
clouded
natural lens.
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataracts.htm
In India
alone, there
is a backlog
of 9.3
million
people
waiting for
cataract
surgery.
http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/cata%20djib%2096.JPG
Glaucoma
Glaucoma refers to a category of eye disorders
often associated with a dangerous buildup of
internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure or
IOP), which can damage the eye's optic nerve
that transmits visual information to the brain.
With untreated or uncontrolled glaucoma, you
might eventually notice decreased ability to see
at the edges of your vision (peripheral vision).
Progressive eye damage could then lead to
blindness.
Glaucoma creates at least some vision loss in
more than half of the approximately 2.5 million
Americans estimated to have the eye disease
and is the second leading cause of blindness.
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In ophthalmology,
tonometry is the
procedure eyecare
professionals
perform to
determine the
intraocular pressure
(IOP), the fluid
pressure inside the
eye.
Tonometers are
calibrated to
measure pressure in
millimeters of
mercury (mmHg).
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/glaucoma.htm
Macular Degeneration
Macular Degeneration is the progressive
deterioration of the macula, the light-sensitive
cells of the central retina, at the back of the eye.
As the macular cells malfunction and die, central
vision becomes gray, distorted and is eventually
lost. Peripheral vision does not become affected.
The macula contains the highest concentration of
photosensitive cells
Fine detail vision and critical color vision are
located in the macula.
The macula depends on nutrient diffusion from
the choroid layer. Anything that interferes with
this nutrient supply can lead to MD
Macular Degeneration
Most Common
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
(AMD)
It typically affects people age 50+
It is the 3rd cause of blindness in the world
accounting for 9% of all blindness
Number of individuals affected is expected
to double by the year 2020 as a result of
ageing
Macular Degeneration
Causes of Age-Related Macular
Degeneration
Aging
Obesity and Inactivity
Heredity
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
Smoking
Lighter Eye Color
Drug Side Effects
Macular Degeneration Diagnosed
Although vision loss is irreversible, early
detection of MD may slow the progression
of dry to wet AMD
Macular Degeneration
Tests used:

Eye Exam

Amsler Grid Test

Fluorescein Angiography

Indocyanine Green Angiography
(IGCA)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Genetic Testing
Treatment For Age-Related Macular
Degeneration
Anti-angiogenic Therapy (injectable
drug treatment
Photocoagulation (laser surgery)
Photodynamic Therapy (injectable
drug treatment)
Submacular Hemorrhage Displacement
Surgery
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myvisiontest.com
Cystoid Macular
Degeneration
clevelandsightcenter.org
Retinal Pigment
Epithelial
detachment
Age-Related
Macular
Degeneration
medicineworld.org
Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic Retinopathy is the
most common diabetic eye
disease and it is caused by
changes in the blood vessels of
the retina
In some people with diabetic
retinopathy, blood vessels may
swell and leak fluid
In other people, abnormal new
blood vessels grow on the
surface of the retina
Diabetic Retinopathy
Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy
Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy
Moderate Nonproliferative Retinopathy
Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy
Proliferative Retinopathy
Causes of Diabetic Retinopathy
Proliferative Retinopathy, the most
advanced state of the disease
Macular Edema, where fluid can leak
into the center of the macula, causing
swelling
Diabetic Retinopathy
How is Diabetic Retinopathy Treated
No treatment is needed during
first 3 stages unless there is
macular edema. Important to
control levels of blood sugar,
blood pressure, and blood
cholesterol to prevent progression
If Needed:
Laser Surgery
Injection of Triamcinolone into
the eye
Vitrectomy
Diabetic Retinopathy
•It is the 4th cause of blindness in
the world accounting for 5% of all
blindness (1.8 million persons)
• At least 171 million people
worldwide have diabetes and this
number is likely to increase more
than double by 2030 to 366
million
•After 15 years about 2% of
persons with diabetes will become
blind and 10% will develop severe
visual loss
•After 20 years more than 75%
will have some form of diabetic
retinopathy
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Global estimate of visual Impairment, by WHO region, 2002
Population of African Region:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
672.238 million
6.782 million
19.996 million
26.778 million
Population of the Americas:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
852.551 million
2.419 million
13.116 million
15.535 million
Population of the Eastern Med. Region:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
1717.536 million
9.312 million
32.481 million
41.793 million
Global estimate of visual Impairment, by WHO region, 2002
Population of European Region:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
877.886 million
2.732 million
12.789 million
15.521 million
Population of Souteast Asia Region:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
1590.832 million
11.587 million
33.496 million
45.083 million
Population of the Western Pacific Region:
No. Of Blind People:
No. With low vision:
No. With visual Impairment:
502.823 million
4.026 million
12.444 million
16.469 million
Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002
Serge Resnikoff,1 Donatella Pascolini,2 Daniel Etya’ale,3 Ivo Kocur,3 Ramachandra Pararajasegaram,4
Gopal P. Pokharel,3 & Silvio P. Mariotti3
References
Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://www.answers.com/topic/macular- degeneration
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29,
2010 from
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amd.htm
Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://www.mayoclinic.org/macular-degeneration/
Diabetic Retinopathy (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetic_retinopathy
Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy (n.d.). Retrieved July 29,
2010 from
http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/retinopathy.asp
What is Vision 2020? (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2010 from
http://vision2020.org/main.cfm?type=WHATVISION2020
10 facts about blindness and visual impairment (n.d.).
Retrieved July 31, 2010 from
http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/blindness/blindness_fa
cts/en/index.html
Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://www.answers.com/topic/macular-degeneration
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29,
2010 from
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amd.htm
References
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FjaYUxZ9rSU&feature=
player_embedded
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k660bCERJXk&feature=
player_embedded
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZoVXG3Ke4&feature=player_embedded
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_FhSo5vNB4&feature=
player_embedded
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataracts.htm
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/glaucoma.htm
Macular Degeneration (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://www.mayoclinic.org/macular-degeneration/
Diabetic Retinopathy (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetic_retinopathy
Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010
from
http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/retinopathy.asp
What is Vision 2020? (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2010 from
http://vision2020.org/main.cfm?type=WHATVISION2020
10 facts about blindness and visual impairment (n.d.). Retrieved
July 31, 2010 from
http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/blindness/blindness_facts/en/
index.html
References
AMD is the commonest cause of blindness in industrialized
countries
http://www.vision2020.org/main.cfm?type=WIBAGERELMU
SCDEG
Diabetic retinopathy is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million
cases of blindness due to eye diseases
http://www.vision2020.org/main.cfm?type=WIBDIEBETIC

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