Native Americans Struggle to Survive Treaty of Fort Laramie 1. What is the purpose of this treaty? 2. What are some things the government promised to the Native Americans? 3. After reading the selection in your textbook, in what ways did the government break their promise? Concentration 1851-1867 Fort Laramie Treaty • How it affected the Native Americans • How this policy did not work Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859) Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864 Broken Treaties • In 1864, Colonel John Chivington attacked a band of Cheyenne at Sand Creek, CO. The Sand Creek Massacre helped ignite an era of war. 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie 1. What career did the government want the Native Americans to pursue? 2. What were some things the government would provide to the natives on the reservation? 3. What was the role of the “agent” on the reservation? 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie 4. In Article VII the document mentions providing school will “insure civilization.” What do you think is meant by that? 5. What is the significance of Article XI? Reservations 1868-1886 2nd Fort Laramie Treaty • How it affected the Native Americans • How this policy did not work Native American Resistance • Many Sioux and Cheyenne gathered on land set aside for them in the Black Hills of the Dakotas. When a gold strike in 1874 brought miners to the area, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led attacks to keep whites out. Native American Resistance • In 1876, Colonel George Custer tried to force Native Americans (Sioux and Cheyenne) onto a reservation. He and all his men died in the Battle of Little Bighorn. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Gen. George Armstrong Custer Chief Sitting Bull Native American Resistance • Chief Joseph led the Nez Perces to Canada. The US Army caught them, and Chief Joseph surrendered. Native American Resistance • After years of war, the Navajos were defeated in 1864 in Arizona, and they were forced to move to a spot near the Pecos River. The Ghost Dance • In the late 1880’s, Native Americans began performing the Ghost Dance, which they believed would make their ancestors and the buffalo return and would cause the whites to leave the Plains. The Ghost Dance • Soldiers saw this as the beginning of an uprising. In struggle, Sitting Bull was killed. Later, troops killed nearly 200 Sioux men, women, and children at the Battle of Wounded Knee. The Dawes Act 1. What was the purpose of this act? 2. What is the importance of the act granting “equal protection under the law?” 3. According to Section 6, how can the Native Americans become a U.S. citizen? 4. What is the purpose of Section 10 in this document? Efforts at Reform In 1881, inspired by Native Americans, Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor describing the hardships of Native Americans. “There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians one which has not suffered cruelly at the hands either of the Government or of white settlers. The poorer, the more insignificant, the more helpless the band, the more certain the cruelty and outrage to which they have been subjected…These Indians found themselves of a sudden surrounded by and caught up in the great influx of gold seeking settlers, as helpless creatures on a shore are caught up in a tidal wave…The tale of the wrongs, the oppressions, the murders…in the last thirty years would be a volume by itself, and is too monstrous to be believed.” Assimilation 1887-Present The Dawes Act • How it affected the Native Americans • How this policy did not work 1. Let Jesus save you. 2. Come out of your blanket, cut your hair, and dress like a white man. 3. Have a Christian family with one wife for life only. 4. Live in a house like your white brother. Work hard and wash often. 5. Learn the value of a hard-earned dollar. Do not waste you money on giveaways. Be punctual. 6. Believe that property and wealth are signs of divine approval. 7. Keep away from saloons and strong spirits. 8. Speak the language of your white brother. Send you children to school and do likewise. 9. Go to church often and regularly. 10. Do not go to Indian dances or to the medicine men. Indian Reservations Today Bell Ringer 1. Define the following policies. 1. Concentration 2. Reservation 3. Assimilation 2. On the reservations, the traditional chief was replaced by ____________. 3. What was the Ghost Dance? 4. What was Helen Hunt Jackson known for? 5. Give an example of a time the whites were slaughtered. An example of a time the native were slaughtered.