Native Americans Struggle to Survive

Native Americans
Struggle to Survive
Treaty of Fort Laramie
1. What is the purpose of this treaty?
2. What are some things the government promised
to the Native Americans?
3. After reading the selection in your textbook, in
what ways did the government break their
Concentration 1851-1867
Fort Laramie Treaty
• How it affected the Native Americans
• How this policy did not work
Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851)
Gold Rush (1859)
Colonel John Chivington
Kill and scalp all, big and
Sandy Creek, CO
November 29, 1864
Broken Treaties
• In 1864, Colonel John Chivington attacked a band
of Cheyenne at Sand Creek, CO. The Sand Creek
Massacre helped ignite an era of war.
2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie
1. What career did the government want the
Native Americans to pursue?
2. What were some things the government would
provide to the natives on the reservation?
3. What was the role of the “agent” on the
2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie
4. In Article VII the document mentions providing
school will “insure civilization.” What do you
think is meant by that?
5. What is the significance of Article XI?
Reservations 1868-1886
2nd Fort Laramie Treaty
• How it affected the Native Americans
• How this policy did not work
Native American Resistance
• Many Sioux and Cheyenne gathered on land set
aside for them in the Black Hills of the Dakotas.
When a gold strike in 1874 brought miners to the
area, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led attacks to
keep whites out.
Native American Resistance
• In 1876, Colonel George Custer tried to force
Native Americans (Sioux and Cheyenne) onto a
reservation. He and all his men died in the Battle
of Little Bighorn.
The Battle of Little Big Horn
Gen. George
Chief Sitting Bull
Native American Resistance
• Chief Joseph led the Nez Perces to Canada. The
US Army caught them, and Chief Joseph
Native American Resistance
• After years of war, the Navajos were defeated in
1864 in Arizona, and they were forced to move to
a spot near the Pecos River.
The Ghost Dance
• In the late 1880’s, Native Americans began
performing the Ghost Dance, which they believed
would make their ancestors and the buffalo
return and would cause the whites to leave the
The Ghost Dance
• Soldiers saw this as the beginning of an uprising.
In struggle, Sitting Bull was killed. Later, troops
killed nearly 200 Sioux men, women, and
children at the Battle of Wounded Knee.
The Dawes Act
1. What was the purpose of this act?
2. What is the importance of the act granting
“equal protection under the law?”
3. According to Section 6, how can the Native
Americans become a U.S. citizen?
4. What is the purpose of Section 10 in this
Efforts at Reform
In 1881, inspired by Native Americans,
Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A Century
of Dishonor describing the hardships
of Native Americans.
“There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians one which has not
suffered cruelly at the hands either of the Government or of white settlers. The
poorer, the more insignificant, the more helpless the band, the more certain the
cruelty and outrage to which they have been subjected…These Indians found
themselves of a sudden surrounded by and caught up in the great influx of gold
seeking settlers, as helpless creatures on a shore are caught up in a tidal
wave…The tale of the wrongs, the oppressions, the murders…in the last thirty
years would be a volume by itself, and is too monstrous to be believed.”
Assimilation 1887-Present
The Dawes Act
• How it affected the Native Americans
• How this policy did not work
1. Let Jesus save you.
2. Come out of your blanket, cut your hair, and dress like a
white man.
3. Have a Christian family with one wife for life only.
4. Live in a house like your white brother. Work hard and
wash often.
5. Learn the value of a hard-earned dollar. Do not waste you
money on giveaways. Be punctual.
6. Believe that property and wealth are signs of divine
7. Keep away from saloons and strong spirits.
8. Speak the language of your white brother. Send you
children to school and do likewise.
9. Go to church often and regularly.
10. Do not go to Indian dances or to the medicine men.
Indian Reservations Today
Bell Ringer
1. Define the following policies.
1. Concentration
2. Reservation
3. Assimilation
2. On the reservations, the traditional chief was
replaced by ____________.
3. What was the Ghost Dance?
4. What was Helen Hunt Jackson known for?
5. Give an example of a time the whites were
slaughtered. An example of a time the native
were slaughtered.

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