A Timeline of Atmospheric Science 340* 0 1020 Aristotle’s Meteorologica is published.Its theories remain unchallenged for nearly 2000 years İbn-i Heysem havanın yoğunluğunun yükseklikle değiştiğini ilk defa keşfeden, bilim adamı olmuştur. 1590s Galileo invents the thermoscope, a precursor of thermometers 1643 Torricelli performs experments on atmospheric Pressure using a mercury barometer 1686 Halley shows that low latitudes receive more solar radiation than higher ones and proposes that this gradient provides forcing for the atmosphere’s general circulation. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.html 1714 Fahrenheit develops the thermometer and a temperature scale 1750 J.Black identifies CO2 in atmospheric air 1752 B.Franklin found out that lightining is an electrical discharge by using kites. 1770s 1781 Rutherford identifies N2 in air. Scheele and Priestley independently discover O2 H.Cavendish measures the composition of air to be 79.16% nitrogen and 20.84% oxygen. Fahrenheit's first thermometers contained a column of alcohol which expanded and contracted directly. Fahrenheit substituted mercury for alcohol because its rate of expansion, although less than that of alcohol, is more constant. Furthermore, mercury could be used over a much wider temperature range than alcohol. (* Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000) 1835 1839 Coriolis effect described by the 19th-century French engineermathematician G. Coriolis 1878 C: Schonbein discovers ozone in the laboratory 1890 A. Cornu measures the spectrum of solar radiation reaching Earth’s surface and suggests that the absence of short wave uv radiation is due to an atmospheric absorber. W. Hartley concludes that Cornus’s absorber is ozone in the upper atmosphere. Schonbein noticed a sharp odor during electrolysis experiments with water. He called this smelly substance as “ozone” after a Greek word meaning “ill smelling”. 1896 S. Arhenius publishes a climate model demonstrating the sensitivity of surface temperature to atmospheric CO2 levels. 1924-28 G. Dobson documents the latitudinal and seasonal variation of ozone. 1930 S. Chapman proposes the first photochemical theory for upper atmospheric ozone production 1941 Radar is used for weather tracking. Svante August Arrhenius ( 1859 -1927) Winner of the 1903 Nobel prize in chemistry Residence: Sweden Affiliation: Stockholm University ( Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000) 1956 1959 N.Phillips completes the first successful numerical simulation of atmospheric circulation 1970-74 P.Crutzen and H. Johnston identify an ozone destroying catalytic cycle involving oxides of N. Molina and S. Rowland link chlorine catalytic cycle to ozone depletion by CFC emissions 1967 The Explorer VI provides TV imagery of cloud cover. V. Suomi uses Explorer VII to estimate the global radiation heat budget of the Earth Atmosphere system 1972 H. Levy proposes that reactions with OH radicals make up the main tropospheric sink for almost all gases emitted into the atmosphere Manabe and Wetherald develop the one dimensional radiative convective model including clouds,water vapor,CO2, and ozone and show that a doubling of CO2 can warm the planet by about 3 degrees. 1985 The Biritish Antarctic Survey reports a systematic,spring time reduction of ozone over Hally Bay leading to a 40% drop between 1956 and 1985 1987 Many countries signed the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone layer in which signatories agree to control on the production and use of ozone destroying materials. ( Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000) 1989 1990s The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment demonstrates that clouds reflect significantly more solar energy than the long wave radiant heat energy they retain thus exerting a large cooling effect on the planet 1996 The production of CFCs and some other ozone depleting chemicals stops in the industrial world. 1995 Researchers establish the importance of anthropogenic aerosols in potentially offsetting the greenhouse effect by reflecting solar radiation to space 1997 The Kyoto Protocol calls for legally binding GHG emission targets for all developed countries. 2001 USA declared not to join the global pact. The United States is the world's largest emitter of global-warming gases. An internatinal team of more than 1000 scientists convenes under the charter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and declares: “The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate.” www.ipcc.ch 2005 Kyoto Protocol takes effect in February as Russia ratifies it in 2004.(17.4 % of CO2 emissions in base year 1990) 2005 The U.S. was a leader in forming the Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean Development and Climate, an international agreement announced July 28, 2005 at meeting of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN).The United States, Australia, India, Japan, South Korea, and the People’s Republic of China agreed to collaborate on strategies to cut greenhouse gas emissions in half by the end of the 21st century. ASEAN nations account for 50 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, population and GDP. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which imposes mandatory targets, the new agreement allows countries to set their own emissions goals, but with no enforcement. 2012 At the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference in Doha, Qatar governments opened a gateway to necessary greater ambition and action on all levels: Strengthened their resolve and set out a timetable to adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015, which will come into effect in 2020. CO2 Emisyonları Kyoto Protocol News The pact requires ratifications by 55 nations including industrialized countries accounting for at least 55 percent of emissions in 1990. Japan and 124 other signatories to the protocol have ratified the pact, but it had not yet taken effect due to the U.S. withdrawal from the pact and the delay in Russia's ratification. U.S. President George W. Bush said in 2001 the United States would not join the global pact. The United States is the world's largest emitter of globalwarming gases. Putin has signed the pact after years of hesitation, using it effectively in negotiations on Russia's bid to join the World Trade Organization. The Kyoto Protocol to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change requires industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by an average of 5.2 percent by 2012. Su Kimyası ve Atmosfer Kimyası • Atmosfer Kimyası Sistemin sınırları su kimyasında olduğu gibi bir reaktör, ırmak,yer altı suyu gibi daha kolay çevrelenebilir bir hacim yerine, büyük bir atmosfer. Türler eser miktarda (%78 N2, %21 O2) Çözelti kimyası sadece sulu faz kimyanın gerçekleştiği sıvı damlacıklarda,aerosollarda gerçekleşir Fotokimyasal tepkimeler önemli Çökelme kuru ve yaş çökelme olarak mevcut Atmosfer Kimyası Sıvı Faz Yağmur damlaları, Bulut damlaları, Sıvı asıltı aerosoller Gaz Faz Heterojen Aerosol üzerinde Gerçekleşen tepkimeler 03 Şubat 2013 Teknoloji Haberleri • Hava kirliliğinin yoğun olarak yaşandığı Çin'de Chen Guangbiao adlı iş adamı ilginç bir çözüm üretti. • Son yıllarda sağladığı gelişimle dünyanın yükselken yıldızı olarak gösterilen Çin, yıllardır süre gelen hava kirliliğine bir türlü çare bulamıyor. Ülkede şu an hava kirliliğinin rekor seviyede olduğu bildiriliyor. İşte tam da bu durumu fırsata dönüştüren Chen Guangbiao, ülkenin yüksek dağlarından kutulara doldurduğu temiz havayı satmaya başladı. • Yaklaşık 740 milyon dolar serveti olduğu tahmin edilen Chen, hava kirliliğinin iyice artmasıyla beraber son 10 günde tanesi 80 cent olan 8 milyon kutunun satıldığını belirtti. • Çin'de hava kirliliği son zamanlarda iyice artarak insanlar için tehlikeli boyuta ulaştı. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü'ne göre hava kirliliğinin 20 PM2.5 düzeyinde olması gerekiyor ve 300 düzeyinin üstü ciddi tehlike yaratıyor. Pekin'deki PM2.5 düzeyi ise son günlerde 500 olarak ölçülüyor.