A Timeline of Atmospheric Science

Report
A Timeline of Atmospheric Science
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1020
Aristotle’s Meteorologica
is published.Its theories
remain unchallenged
for nearly 2000 years
İbn-i Heysem
havanın
yoğunluğunun
yükseklikle
değiştiğini ilk
defa keşfeden,
bilim adamı
olmuştur.
1590s
Galileo invents
the
thermoscope, a
precursor of
thermometers
1643
Torricelli performs
experments on
atmospheric
Pressure using a
mercury
barometer
1686
Halley shows that low
latitudes receive more solar
radiation than higher ones
and proposes that this
gradient provides forcing for
the atmosphere’s general
circulation.
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/meteorology.html
1714
Fahrenheit
develops the
thermometer and a
temperature scale
1750
J.Black identifies
CO2 in
atmospheric air
1752
B.Franklin found
out that lightining
is an electrical
discharge by
using kites.
1770s
1781
Rutherford identifies N2
in air. Scheele and
Priestley independently
discover O2
H.Cavendish measures
the composition of air to
be 79.16% nitrogen and
20.84% oxygen.
Fahrenheit's first thermometers contained a column of alcohol which expanded and
contracted directly. Fahrenheit substituted mercury for alcohol because its rate of
expansion, although less than that of alcohol, is more constant. Furthermore, mercury
could be used over a much wider temperature range than alcohol.
(* Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000)
1835
1839
Coriolis effect
described by the
19th-century
French engineermathematician G.
Coriolis
1878
C: Schonbein discovers
ozone in the laboratory
1890
A. Cornu measures the spectrum
of solar radiation reaching Earth’s
surface and suggests that the
absence of short wave uv radiation
is due to an atmospheric absorber.
W. Hartley
concludes that
Cornus’s absorber
is ozone in the
upper
atmosphere.
Schonbein noticed a sharp odor during electrolysis
experiments with water. He called this smelly substance as
“ozone” after a Greek word meaning “ill smelling”.
1896
S. Arhenius publishes a
climate model demonstrating
the sensitivity of surface
temperature to atmospheric
CO2 levels.
1924-28
G. Dobson
documents the
latitudinal and
seasonal variation
of ozone.
1930
S. Chapman
proposes the first
photochemical
theory for upper
atmospheric ozone
production
1941
Radar is used for
weather tracking.
Svante August Arrhenius ( 1859 -1927)
Winner of the 1903 Nobel prize in
chemistry Residence: Sweden
Affiliation: Stockholm University
( Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000)
1956
1959
N.Phillips completes the
first successful numerical
simulation of atmospheric
circulation
1970-74
P.Crutzen and H.
Johnston identify an
ozone destroying
catalytic cycle
involving oxides of
N. Molina and S.
Rowland link
chlorine catalytic
cycle to ozone
depletion by CFC
emissions
1967
The Explorer VI provides TV
imagery of cloud cover. V.
Suomi uses Explorer VII to
estimate the global radiation
heat budget of the Earth Atmosphere system
1972
H. Levy proposes that
reactions with OH
radicals make up the
main tropospheric sink for
almost all gases emitted
into the atmosphere
Manabe and Wetherald develop
the one dimensional radiative
convective model including
clouds,water vapor,CO2, and
ozone and show that a doubling
of CO2 can warm the planet by
about 3 degrees.
1985
The Biritish Antarctic
Survey reports a
systematic,spring time
reduction of ozone over
Hally Bay leading to a
40% drop between
1956 and 1985
1987
Many countries signed
the Montreal Protocol on
substances that deplete
the Ozone layer in which
signatories agree to
control on the production
and use of ozone
destroying materials.
( Crutzen and Ramanathan,2000)
1989
1990s
The Earth Radiation Budget
Experiment demonstrates
that clouds reflect
significantly more solar
energy than the long wave
radiant heat energy they
retain thus exerting a large
cooling effect on the planet
1996
The production of
CFCs and some
other ozone
depleting chemicals
stops in the industrial
world.
1995
Researchers establish
the importance of
anthropogenic
aerosols in potentially
offsetting the
greenhouse effect by
reflecting solar
radiation to space
1997
The Kyoto Protocol
calls for legally
binding GHG
emission targets
for all developed
countries.
2001
USA declared not
to join the global
pact. The United
States is the world's
largest emitter of
global-warming
gases.
An internatinal team of
more than 1000
scientists convenes
under the charter of the
Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change and
declares: “The balance
of evidence suggests a
discernible human
influence on global
climate.” www.ipcc.ch
2005
Kyoto Protocol takes effect in
February as Russia ratifies it
in 2004.(17.4 % of CO2
emissions in base year 1990)
2005
The U.S. was a leader in forming the Asia-Pacific
Partnership for Clean Development and Climate, an
international agreement announced July 28, 2005 at
meeting of the Association of South East Asian
Nations (ASEAN).The United States, Australia, India,
Japan, South Korea, and the People’s Republic of
China agreed to collaborate on strategies to cut
greenhouse gas emissions in half by the end of the
21st century. ASEAN nations account for 50 percent
of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, energy
consumption, population and GDP. Unlike the Kyoto
Protocol, which imposes mandatory targets, the new
agreement allows countries to set their own
emissions goals, but with no enforcement.
2012
At the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference in
Doha, Qatar governments opened a gateway to
necessary greater ambition and action on all levels:
Strengthened their resolve and set out a timetable to
adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015, which
will come into effect in 2020.
CO2 Emisyonları
Kyoto Protocol News
The pact requires ratifications by 55 nations including industrialized countries
accounting for at least 55 percent of emissions in 1990.
Japan and 124 other signatories to the protocol have ratified the pact, but it
had not yet taken effect due to the U.S. withdrawal from the pact and the delay
in Russia's ratification.
U.S. President George W. Bush said in 2001 the United States would not join
the global pact. The United States is the world's largest emitter of globalwarming gases.
Putin has signed the pact after years of hesitation, using it effectively in
negotiations on Russia's bid to join the World Trade Organization.
The Kyoto Protocol to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change
requires industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions
from 1990 levels by an average of 5.2 percent by 2012.
Su Kimyası ve Atmosfer Kimyası
• Atmosfer Kimyası
Sistemin sınırları su kimyasında olduğu
gibi bir reaktör, ırmak,yer altı suyu gibi
daha kolay çevrelenebilir bir hacim
yerine, büyük bir atmosfer.
Türler eser miktarda (%78 N2, %21 O2)
Çözelti kimyası sadece sulu faz kimyanın
gerçekleştiği sıvı
damlacıklarda,aerosollarda gerçekleşir
Fotokimyasal tepkimeler önemli
Çökelme kuru ve yaş çökelme olarak
mevcut
Atmosfer Kimyası
Sıvı Faz
Yağmur damlaları,
Bulut damlaları,
Sıvı asıltı aerosoller
Gaz Faz
Heterojen
Aerosol üzerinde
Gerçekleşen
tepkimeler
03 Şubat 2013 Teknoloji Haberleri
• Hava kirliliğinin yoğun olarak yaşandığı
Çin'de Chen Guangbiao adlı iş adamı ilginç
bir çözüm üretti.
• Son yıllarda sağladığı gelişimle dünyanın
yükselken yıldızı olarak gösterilen Çin,
yıllardır süre gelen hava kirliliğine bir türlü
çare bulamıyor. Ülkede şu an hava
kirliliğinin rekor seviyede olduğu bildiriliyor.
İşte tam da bu durumu fırsata dönüştüren
Chen Guangbiao, ülkenin yüksek
dağlarından kutulara doldurduğu temiz
havayı satmaya başladı.
• Yaklaşık 740 milyon dolar serveti olduğu
tahmin edilen Chen, hava kirliliğinin iyice
artmasıyla beraber son 10 günde tanesi
80 cent olan 8 milyon kutunun satıldığını
belirtti.
• Çin'de hava kirliliği son zamanlarda iyice
artarak insanlar için tehlikeli boyuta ulaştı.
Dünya Sağlık Örgütü'ne göre hava
kirliliğinin 20 PM2.5 düzeyinde olması
gerekiyor ve 300 düzeyinin üstü ciddi
tehlike yaratıyor. Pekin'deki PM2.5 düzeyi
ise son günlerde 500 olarak ölçülüyor.

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