How did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933? ALL OF US will be able to give reasons why Hitler became Chancellor and extract information from sources. (E3D2) EVEN BETTER IF you can explain reasons how Hitler became Chancellor use your own knowledge to explain why a source is/n’t useful. (D1-B3) EXCELLENT IF you can comment on how the authorship of a source affects it’s view and use your own knowledge to judge the extent to which a source supports a specific view. (B2-A1) 30th January, 1933 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Steps to chancellorship: The failure of the Munich Putsch (trial and subsequent fame; Mein Kampf; focus on becoming elected rather than taking power. Wall Street Crash. Weakness of Weimar Republic. Fear of communism. Use of propaganda and Hitler’s appeal. Political Scheming. Structure of the Weimar Republic One of the first actions of the new republic was to sign the armstice to end WWI. (Which Germany was losing) Many in the army saw this as the government ‘stabbing them in the back’. Use of Proportional Representation voting system meant that it was hard for one political party to gain control and make decisions to effectively run the country. All of this led Why did the Weimar many Germans Republic have to want a strong so many leader who could problems? run the country. Treaty of Versailles imposed harsh reparations and took mineral rich lands from Germany, crippling her and leading to issues such as hyperinflation crisis and dependence on loans from America. Many Germans saw this as a betrayl and saw this government as the ‘November Criminals’. Friedrich Ebert First President of Weimar Republic Treaty of Versailles Signed by the incoming Weimar government at the end of World War One. They had no choice in signing this agreement. By signing this document the government accepted responsibility for the war on behalf of Germany. Terms included the army being limited to 100,000 and having no air force. Also, having large parts of Germany taken away and the Rhineland being demilitarised so that Germany could not attack Germany. As well as this Germany had to pay reparations to France and Belgium, these would lead to many economic problems for Germany in the 1920s. Much resentment towards the Weimar Republic for signing this agreement. WHY WAS THE MUNICH PUTSCH IMPORTANT TO HITLER Hitler used his trial as a platform to share his goals and grievances with a wider audience. There was lots of media coverage of the trial which brought Hitler to a wider audience outside Bavaria. Despite failing to spark a revolution, how could the Putsch be seen as a good thing for Hitler and the Nazis? Hitler spent his time in prison writing Mein Kampf which set out his vision for Germany and his role within that. Hitler realised that to destroy democracy, he would have to be elected into power.. Due to their attempt to overthrow government, the Nazi Party was banned, and Hitler was banned from public speaking until 1927. Hitler realise that to have political success the Nazi Party would have to grow, so deals were made to merge with other right wing parties. HOW DID THE WALL STREET CRASH (1929) HELP HITLER BECOME CHANCELLOR? Wall Street Crash in America led to high unemployment in Germany. By 1932 6 million unemployed and the government had failed to resolve situation. Working class begin to look to Nazis and Communists as they offer clear and simple solutions to their problem. Rich Industrialists and the Middle Classes are scared of communism so many put their support behind Nazis, including financial support. Massive propaganda campaign delivering simple message, and all the chaos seemed to prove Hitler’s point that strong, singular leadership was what Germany needed. In 1928 election Nazis won 2.6% of seats. By 1932 the Nazis won37.3% of seats. Hitler represented the strong singular leadership that many Germans wanted, rather than the democracy they had been offered since the abdication of the Kaiser. At times of desperation and high unemployment, Nazis offered clear solutions to the problems of the German people. Also Nazi message was clear, simple, and often repeated. What was the appeal of the Nazis? Use of uniforms and military styling appealed to many as it showed a structure and organisation that many felt that Germany lacked. Many rich industrialists supported the Nazis as they saw them as their defence against communism, under which they would lose their wealth. PROPAGANDA During the years 1929-33 the Nazis increased their support through propaganda. Held many rallies, displayed banners and posters in prominent places so that the Nazis appeared to be everywhere. Goebbels ensured that the Nazi message was simple and regularly repeated, on the radio and in the 120 weekly and daily newspapers that the Nazis owned and were read by hundreds of thousands of Germans. ‘Arbeit und Brot’ Propaganda on this scale was only possible due to the massive financial backing that the Nazis received from rich industrialists scared of communism, and National Party leader Alfred Hugenberg who allowed from pro Nazi/anti Weimar articles to be ran in his newspapers. THE SUCCESS OF THE PROPAGANDA WAS EVIDENT FROM THE RESULTS OF THE 1932 PRESITENTIAL ELECTION. HITLER STOOD AGAINST HINDENBURG, HITLER FLEW AROUND THE COUNTRY CAMPAIGNING, HINDENBURG DID NOT. HINDENBURG WON AFTER TWO ROUNDS OF VOTING (19.36 MILLION TO HITLER’S 13.42 MILLION) Chancellor Bruning resigned as Chancellor in May 1932 due to his inability to win support for his policies. He was replaced by von Papen of the Centre Party. (the fourth biggest party in the Reichstag) My party do not have many seats in the Reichstag, which large party could I make a coalition with? Chancellor Bruning Chancellor von Papen I called a general Should Ifor stillJuly be election Chancellor? 1932, howAsdothe youleader of the think thatlargest went? party in the Reichstag I believe that I should be made Chancellor! Chancellor von Papen NASDAP = Nazi 230 seats and 37.3% of the vote. SPD = Social Democrats KPD = Communists Zentrum = Centre Party Hitler’s for the role of Chancellor von Papen WhyDespite do you thinkdemands Hindenburg stayed on in the role at Hindenburg’s request. Von Papen refused the make Hitler though the Nazis were a flash in the pan and ordered a new Chancellor? election for November 1932. Not a chance mate! At the meeting in August 1932 Hindenburg refused to offer Hitler the Chancellorship. He could not answer, he said, before God, his conscience and the fatherland, if he handed over the entire power of the government to a single party and one which was intolerant towards those with different views. Lets abolish the constitution! No? I’m off! Nazis win 196 seats and 33.1% of the vote. NASDAP = Nazi SPD = Social Democrats KPD = Communists Zentrum = Centre Party Centre Party wins 70 seats and 11.0% of the vote. As very few people trusted or supported von Papen, I Kurt von Scheicher was made chancellor. I attempted to form a huge coalition but I didn’t really work and upset the Nazis. Von Papen was so desperate to return to power he met with Hitler in January 1933 and decided that Hitler should lead with him a Chancellor. Hitler could be controlled. Many rich industrialists got behind this plan as they believed that Hitler would save Germany from a possible communist revolution. I know we’ve had our differences but… Adolf Hitler Chancellor von Papen Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler would be a figurehead to bring back stability but that he could be controlled. On 30 January 1933 Hitler succeeded in becoming Chancellor by legal and democratic means. A strong figurehead eh… So what was political scheming and how did it help Hitler to become Chancellor? Complete task four on page 107. Complete task one on page 129. Complete task eight on page 122. ALL OF US will be able to give reasons why Hitler became Chancellor and extract information from sources. (E3-D2) EVEN BETTER IF you can explain reasons how Hitler became Chancellor use your own knowledge to explain why a source is/n’t useful. (D1-B3) EXCELLENT IF you can comment on how the authorship of a source affects it’s view and use your own knowledge to judge the extent to which a source supports a specific view. (B2-A1) Complete task two on page 124. Complete task eight on page 116. 20 minutes How did Hitler go from a democratically elected Chancellor to the Fuhrer?!?!? Hitler became Chancellor on 30th January 1933 and called for a new election on 5th March 1933 as he did not want to work with other parties. How did the Reichstag Fire help Hitler to consolidate power?!?!? Nazis won 43.9% of vote in March 1933 election. Reichstag was burned down one week before these elections, and blamed on a communist found at the scene. (Marinus van der Lubbe) Hitler used this as an excuse for a massive propaganda campaign against the Communists, suggesting they wanted to destroy democracy. Convinced Hindenburg to pass the ‘Decree for the Protection of People and State’ which gave Hitler the power to round up political opposition (particularly Communists). Non Nazis were unable to hold meetings in run up to election. Despite having combining with National Party to gain a majority in Reichstag, Hitler needed two thirds of the seats to make the changes to the Constitution that he wanted. How did the Enabling Act help Hitler to consolidate power?!?!? Effectively the end of democracy and regarded as the foundation stone of the Third Reich. Leads to suspension of civil liberties, control of media, censorship, and the implementation of Gleichschaltung. Enabling Bill would give Hitler full governmental powers for next four years. In the vote` for the bill communist members were not allowed to vote, the SA was used to intimidate politicians as they entered the building. Also, Hitler gains support of Catholic centre party by promising not to interfere with Catholic schools. Law was passed, 444 votes to 94. 2nd May 1933 trade unions were banned and replaced by the DAF. Trade Unions could have organised workers resistance against the Nazis through strike actions, this was now not possible as strikes were banned. How did banning political parties and trade unions help Hitler to consolidate power? After the Social Democrat Party had it’s assets seized all other parties disbanded voluntarily. Law Against the Formation of Political Parties passed on 14th July 1933 made Nazi party the only legal political party in Germany. In November 1933 election Nazis won 95.2% of the vote. Army felt threatened by Rohm, who wanted the army incorporated into his SA. Many in the SA were working class and held socialist views. (Wealth should be redistributed to the poor). Rohm had TOO MUCH POWER. Rohm and others were homosexuals. The SA had grown in number to nearly two million, compared to the 100,000 of the German army. Hitler wanted the support of the German army to make his rule legitimate. How did the Night of Long Knives help Hitler to consolidate power?!?!? Removed a major source of opposition, sealed the support of the German Army, Hitler showed how he would deal with threats to his power. At 3am on 30th June 1934, hundreds of regional SA leaders – and Rohm – were arrested on Hitler’s orders, taken to prison, and shot dead. The murders were committed by Hitler’s own blackshirted SS guards, who were fiercely loyal to him. In August 1934 Hindenburg died (of natural causes). Last threat to Hitler’s power was President Hindenburg who was old and frail. Hitler now combined his role with that of President and became Commander-in-Chief of the army. How did the death of Hindenburg help Hitler to consolidate power?!?!? Hitler held a referendum on 19th August to get public backing and 90% of the voters supported his becoming the ‘Fuhrer’.