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How did Hitler become
Chancellor in 1933?
ALL OF US will be able to give reasons
why Hitler became Chancellor and
extract information from sources. (E3D2)
EVEN BETTER IF you can explain
reasons how Hitler became Chancellor
use your own knowledge to explain
why a source is/n’t useful. (D1-B3)
EXCELLENT IF you can comment on
how the authorship of a source affects
it’s view and use your own knowledge
to judge the extent to which a source
supports a specific view. (B2-A1)
30th January, 1933
1.
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4.
5.
6.
Steps to chancellorship:
The failure of the Munich Putsch (trial and subsequent fame; Mein
Kampf; focus on becoming elected rather than taking power.
Wall Street Crash.
Weakness of Weimar Republic.
Fear of communism.
Use of propaganda and Hitler’s appeal.
Political Scheming.
Structure of the
Weimar Republic
One of the first actions of
the new republic was to
sign the armstice to end
WWI. (Which Germany
was losing) Many in the
army saw this as the
government ‘stabbing
them in the back’.
Use of Proportional
Representation
voting system meant
that it was hard for
one political party to
gain control and
make decisions to
effectively run the
country.
All of this led Why did the
Weimar
many Germans Republic
have
to want a strong so many
leader who could problems?
run the country.
Treaty of Versailles imposed harsh reparations
and took mineral rich lands from Germany,
crippling her and leading to issues such as
hyperinflation crisis and dependence on loans
from America.
Many Germans saw this as a betrayl and saw
this government as the ‘November Criminals’.
Friedrich Ebert
First President of
Weimar Republic
Treaty of Versailles
Signed by the incoming Weimar government at the end of World War One.
They had no choice in signing this agreement.
By signing this document the government accepted responsibility for the
war on behalf of Germany.
Terms included the army being
limited to 100,000 and having no air
force. Also, having large parts of
Germany taken away and the
Rhineland being demilitarised so that
Germany could not attack Germany.
As well as this Germany had to pay
reparations to France and Belgium,
these would lead to many economic
problems for Germany in the 1920s.
Much resentment towards the
Weimar Republic for signing this
agreement.
WHY WAS THE
MUNICH
PUTSCH
IMPORTANT TO
HITLER
Hitler used his trial as a
platform to share his
goals and grievances
with a wider audience.
There was lots of media coverage of
the trial which brought Hitler to a
wider audience outside Bavaria.
Despite failing to spark a
revolution, how could the Putsch
be seen as a good thing for Hitler
and the Nazis?
Hitler spent his
time in prison
writing Mein Kampf
which set out his
vision for Germany
and his role within
that.
Hitler realised that to
destroy democracy, he
would have to be
elected into power..
Due to their attempt to
overthrow government, the
Nazi Party was banned, and
Hitler was banned from public
speaking until 1927.
Hitler realise that to
have political success
the Nazi Party would
have to grow, so deals
were made to merge
with other right wing
parties.
HOW DID THE WALL STREET CRASH (1929)
HELP HITLER BECOME CHANCELLOR?
Wall Street Crash in America led to high
unemployment in Germany. By 1932 6 million
unemployed and the government had failed to
resolve situation.
Working class begin to look to Nazis and
Communists as they offer clear and simple
solutions to their problem.
Rich Industrialists and the Middle Classes are
scared of communism so many put their support
behind Nazis, including financial support.
Massive propaganda campaign delivering simple
message, and all the chaos seemed to prove
Hitler’s point that strong, singular leadership
was what Germany needed.
In 1928 election Nazis won 2.6% of seats. By
1932 the Nazis won37.3% of seats.
Hitler represented the strong
singular leadership that many
Germans wanted, rather than
the democracy they had been
offered since the abdication of
the Kaiser.
At times of desperation and
high unemployment, Nazis
offered clear solutions to the
problems of the German
people. Also Nazi message was
clear, simple, and often
repeated.
What was the appeal of the
Nazis?
Use of uniforms
and military styling
appealed to many
as it showed a
structure and
organisation that
many felt that
Germany lacked.
Many rich
industrialists
supported the Nazis
as they saw them
as their defence
against
communism, under
which they would
lose their wealth.
PROPAGANDA
During the years 1929-33 the Nazis increased their support through propaganda.
Held many rallies, displayed banners and posters in prominent places so that the
Nazis appeared to be everywhere.
Goebbels ensured that the Nazi message was simple and regularly repeated, on the
radio and in the 120 weekly and daily newspapers that the Nazis owned and were
read by hundreds of thousands of Germans. ‘Arbeit und Brot’
Propaganda on this scale was only possible due to the massive financial backing that
the Nazis received from rich industrialists scared of communism, and National
Party leader Alfred Hugenberg who allowed from pro Nazi/anti Weimar articles to
be ran in his newspapers.
THE SUCCESS OF THE PROPAGANDA WAS EVIDENT FROM THE RESULTS OF
THE 1932 PRESITENTIAL ELECTION. HITLER STOOD AGAINST HINDENBURG,
HITLER FLEW AROUND THE COUNTRY CAMPAIGNING, HINDENBURG DID
NOT. HINDENBURG WON AFTER TWO ROUNDS OF VOTING (19.36 MILLION
TO HITLER’S 13.42 MILLION)
Chancellor Bruning resigned as Chancellor in May 1932
due to his inability to win support for his policies. He was
replaced by von Papen of the Centre Party. (the fourth
biggest party in the Reichstag)
My party do not
have many seats in
the Reichstag,
which large party
could I make a
coalition with?
Chancellor Bruning
Chancellor von Papen
I called a general
Should Ifor
stillJuly
be
election
Chancellor?
1932,
howAsdothe
youleader of the
think thatlargest
went? party in the
Reichstag I believe that I
should be made
Chancellor!
Chancellor von Papen
NASDAP = Nazi
230 seats and 37.3% of the vote.
SPD = Social
Democrats
KPD =
Communists
Zentrum = Centre
Party
Hitler’s
for the role of Chancellor von Papen
WhyDespite
do you
thinkdemands
Hindenburg
stayed on in the role at Hindenburg’s request. Von Papen
refused
the make Hitler
though the Nazis were a flash in the pan and ordered a new
Chancellor?
election for November 1932.
Not a chance
mate!
At the meeting in August
1932 Hindenburg refused to
offer Hitler the
Chancellorship. He could not
answer, he said, before God,
his conscience and the
fatherland, if he handed
over the entire power of
the government to a single
party and one which was
intolerant towards those
with different views.
Lets abolish the
constitution!
No? I’m off!
Nazis win 196 seats and 33.1% of the vote.
NASDAP = Nazi
SPD = Social
Democrats
KPD =
Communists
Zentrum = Centre
Party
Centre Party wins 70 seats and 11.0% of the vote.
As very few people trusted or supported von
Papen, I Kurt von Scheicher was made
chancellor. I attempted to form a huge
coalition but I didn’t really work and upset the
Nazis.
Von Papen was so desperate to return to power he met with Hitler in
January 1933 and decided that Hitler should lead with him a Chancellor.
Hitler could be controlled.
Many rich industrialists got behind this plan as they believed that Hitler
would save Germany from a possible communist revolution.
I know we’ve had
our differences
but…
Adolf Hitler
Chancellor von Papen
Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler would be a
figurehead to bring back stability but that he could be
controlled. On 30 January 1933 Hitler succeeded in
becoming Chancellor by legal and democratic means.
A strong
figurehead eh…
So what was
political
scheming and
how did it help
Hitler to become
Chancellor?
Complete task four on
page 107.
Complete task one on
page 129.
Complete task eight on
page 122.
ALL OF US will be able to give reasons why
Hitler became Chancellor and extract
information from sources. (E3-D2)
EVEN BETTER IF you can explain reasons how
Hitler became Chancellor use your own
knowledge to explain why a source is/n’t useful.
(D1-B3)
EXCELLENT IF you can comment on how the
authorship of a source affects it’s view and use
your own knowledge to judge the extent to
which a source supports a specific view. (B2-A1)
Complete task two on
page 124.
Complete task eight on
page 116.
20 minutes
How did Hitler go
from a
democratically
elected Chancellor
to the Fuhrer?!?!?
Hitler became Chancellor on 30th
January 1933 and called for a new
election on 5th March 1933 as he did
not want to work with other parties.
How did the
Reichstag Fire help
Hitler to
consolidate
power?!?!?
Nazis won 43.9% of
vote in March 1933
election.
Reichstag was
burned down one
week before these
elections, and
blamed on a
communist found at
the scene. (Marinus
van der Lubbe)
Hitler used this as an
excuse for a massive
propaganda
campaign against the
Communists,
suggesting they
wanted to destroy
democracy.
Convinced Hindenburg to pass the
‘Decree for the Protection of People
and State’ which gave Hitler the power
to round up political opposition
(particularly Communists). Non Nazis
were unable to hold meetings in run up
to election.
Despite having
combining with
National Party to gain
a majority in
Reichstag, Hitler
needed two thirds of
the seats to make the
changes to the
Constitution that he
wanted.
How did the
Enabling Act help
Hitler to
consolidate
power?!?!?
Effectively the end of
democracy and regarded
as the foundation stone of
the Third Reich. Leads to
suspension of civil
liberties, control of media,
censorship, and the
implementation of
Gleichschaltung.
Enabling Bill would
give Hitler full
governmental powers
for next four years. In
the vote` for the bill
communist members
were not allowed to
vote, the SA was used
to intimidate
politicians as they
entered the building.
Also, Hitler gains
support of Catholic
centre party by
promising not to
interfere with
Catholic schools. Law
was passed, 444
votes to 94.
2nd May 1933 trade unions
were banned and replaced
by the DAF.
Trade Unions could have
organised workers
resistance against the Nazis
through strike actions, this
was now not possible as
strikes were banned.
How did banning
political parties
and trade unions
help Hitler to
consolidate
power?
After the Social Democrat
Party had it’s assets seized
all other parties disbanded
voluntarily.
Law Against the Formation
of Political Parties passed
on 14th July 1933 made Nazi
party the only legal political
party in Germany.
In November
1933 election
Nazis won
95.2% of the
vote.
Army felt threatened by Rohm, who wanted
the army incorporated into his SA. Many in
the SA were working class and held socialist
views. (Wealth should be redistributed to the
poor). Rohm had TOO MUCH POWER. Rohm
and others were homosexuals.
The SA had grown in
number to nearly two
million, compared to
the 100,000 of the
German army.
Hitler wanted the
support of the
German army to make
his rule legitimate.
How did the Night
of Long Knives
help Hitler to
consolidate
power?!?!?
Removed a major
source of
opposition, sealed
the support of the
German Army,
Hitler showed how
he would deal with
threats to his
power.
At 3am on 30th June
1934, hundreds of
regional SA leaders –
and Rohm – were
arrested on Hitler’s
orders, taken to
prison, and shot
dead. The murders
were committed by
Hitler’s own blackshirted SS guards,
who were fiercely
loyal to him.
In August 1934 Hindenburg
died (of natural causes).
Last threat to Hitler’s
power was President
Hindenburg who was
old and frail.
Hitler now combined his role
with that of President and
became Commander-in-Chief
of the army.
How did the death
of Hindenburg help
Hitler to
consolidate
power?!?!?
Hitler held a
referendum on 19th
August to get public
backing and 90% of
the voters
supported his
becoming the
‘Fuhrer’.

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