Chapter 30 Waste Management Modern Trends • Industrial Ecology – The study of relationships among industrial systems and their links to natural systems • Recently, the State of Florida agreed to buy a bunch of land from US Sugar to help restore the Everglades. This is monumental because US Sugar agreed to take their sugarcane farms elsewhere in order to restore a natural system. Integrated Waste Management (IWM) • Includes: – Reduce, reuse, recycle: aka – the 3 R’s • Over the past 10 years there has been much public support for recycling. – Composting • Lawn materials, kitchen scraps and such are allowed to decompose into a nutrient-rich soil. – Landfill • Leachate – Big problem, all sorts of toxic materials & bacteria can get into water systems. – Incineration • The idea might be “nice”, but remember that burning wastes produces NOx, SOx and heavy metals. Materials Management • A visionary goal requiring more sustainable use of materials combined with resource conservation – Eliminate subsides for extraction of materials such as oil & timber – Establish “green building” incentives – Assess financial penalties – Provide financial incentives – Increase new jobs Solid-Waste Management • On-Site Disposal – Garbage disposals • Composting – Reused as fertilizer • Incineration – Reduces large volumes of waste • Open Dumps – Pollutes groundwater & surface water • Sanitary Landfills – Site Selection – Leachate Composition of US municipal solid waste for 2003. Sanitary Landfills • Are designed to concentrate and contain refuse without creating a hazard to public health or safety • Considerations: – – – – Leachate is produced Site Selection: Environmental justice Monitoring Pollution Federal Legislation The most desirable landfill sites are in humid environments where waste is buried above the water table and the surrounding soil is relatively impermeable. 8 Ways Pollutants from Sanitary Landfill Sites May Enter Environment Multiple barrier design for a solid-waste sanitary landfill. Any Questions? Ch. 30 P#2 Hazardous Waste • Waste that is classified as definitely or potentially hazardous to the health of people • Serious environmental problems • Uncontrolled disposal sites could cause serious health problems • Need to develop safe disposal methods Hazardous Waste Legislation • • • • • • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act CERCLA (Superfund) Environmental Audit Secure Landfill Surface Impoundment Deep-Well Disposal A secure landfill for hazardous chemical wastes. The impervious liners, systems of drains and leak detectors are integral parts of this design. Alternatives to Hazardous Waste • Source reduction, Recycling and Resources recovery, Treatment, Incineration • Advantages – – – – Chemicals can be reused Less toxic = less problems Smaller volume of waste Less stress of waste disposal sites Ocean Dumping Bad, Bad, Bad!! • Types of Waste – – – – – Dredge spoils Industrial wastes Sewage sludge Construction debris Solid waste • The most seriously affected areas are near shore – Hum…like where a majority of the population resides? Pollution Prevention • Identifying ways to prevent the generation of waste, rather than finding ways to dispose of it 1. 2. 3. 4. Correct purchasing amounts Better control of materials Substituting non-toxic chemicals Improving engineering Any Questions?