Chapter 29

Report
Chapter 30
Waste Management
Modern Trends
• Industrial Ecology
– The study of relationships among industrial
systems and their links to natural systems
• Recently, the State of Florida agreed to buy
a bunch of land from US Sugar to help
restore the Everglades. This is monumental
because US Sugar agreed to take their
sugarcane farms elsewhere in order to
restore a natural system.
Integrated Waste Management
(IWM)
• Includes:
– Reduce, reuse, recycle: aka – the 3 R’s
• Over the past 10 years there has been much public support for
recycling.
– Composting
• Lawn materials, kitchen scraps and such are allowed to
decompose into a nutrient-rich soil.
– Landfill
• Leachate – Big problem, all sorts of toxic materials & bacteria
can get into water systems.
– Incineration
• The idea might be “nice”, but remember that burning wastes
produces NOx, SOx and heavy metals.
Materials Management
• A visionary goal requiring more sustainable use of
materials combined with resource conservation
– Eliminate subsides for extraction of materials such as
oil & timber
– Establish “green building” incentives
– Assess financial penalties
– Provide financial incentives
– Increase new jobs
Solid-Waste Management
• On-Site Disposal
– Garbage disposals
• Composting
– Reused as fertilizer
• Incineration
– Reduces large volumes of waste
• Open Dumps
– Pollutes groundwater & surface water
• Sanitary Landfills
– Site Selection
– Leachate
Composition of US municipal solid waste for 2003.
Sanitary Landfills
• Are designed to concentrate and contain
refuse without creating a hazard to public
health or safety
• Considerations:
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Leachate is produced
Site Selection: Environmental justice
Monitoring Pollution
Federal Legislation
The most desirable landfill sites are in humid environments
where waste is buried above the water table and the surrounding
soil is relatively impermeable.
8 Ways Pollutants from Sanitary Landfill Sites May Enter
Environment
Multiple barrier design for a solid-waste sanitary landfill.
Any Questions?
Ch. 30 P#2
Hazardous Waste
• Waste that is classified as definitely or
potentially hazardous to the health of people
• Serious environmental problems
• Uncontrolled disposal sites could cause
serious health problems
• Need to develop safe disposal methods
Hazardous Waste Legislation
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Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
CERCLA (Superfund)
Environmental Audit
Secure Landfill
Surface Impoundment
Deep-Well Disposal
A secure landfill for hazardous chemical wastes. The impervious
liners, systems of drains and leak detectors are integral parts of
this design.
Alternatives to Hazardous Waste
• Source reduction, Recycling and Resources
recovery, Treatment, Incineration
• Advantages
–
–
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Chemicals can be reused
Less toxic = less problems
Smaller volume of waste
Less stress of waste disposal sites
Ocean Dumping
Bad, Bad, Bad!!
• Types of Waste
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Dredge spoils
Industrial wastes
Sewage sludge
Construction debris
Solid waste
• The most seriously affected areas are near shore
– Hum…like where a majority of the population resides?
Pollution Prevention
•
Identifying ways to prevent the generation
of waste, rather than finding ways to
dispose of it
1.
2.
3.
4.
Correct purchasing amounts
Better control of materials
Substituting non-toxic chemicals
Improving engineering
Any Questions?

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