Chapter 29

Chapter 30
Waste Management
Modern Trends
• Industrial Ecology
– The study of relationships among industrial
systems and their links to natural systems
• Recently, the State of Florida agreed to buy
a bunch of land from US Sugar to help
restore the Everglades. This is monumental
because US Sugar agreed to take their
sugarcane farms elsewhere in order to
restore a natural system.
Integrated Waste Management
• Includes:
– Reduce, reuse, recycle: aka – the 3 R’s
• Over the past 10 years there has been much public support for
– Composting
• Lawn materials, kitchen scraps and such are allowed to
decompose into a nutrient-rich soil.
– Landfill
• Leachate – Big problem, all sorts of toxic materials & bacteria
can get into water systems.
– Incineration
• The idea might be “nice”, but remember that burning wastes
produces NOx, SOx and heavy metals.
Materials Management
• A visionary goal requiring more sustainable use of
materials combined with resource conservation
– Eliminate subsides for extraction of materials such as
oil & timber
– Establish “green building” incentives
– Assess financial penalties
– Provide financial incentives
– Increase new jobs
Solid-Waste Management
• On-Site Disposal
– Garbage disposals
• Composting
– Reused as fertilizer
• Incineration
– Reduces large volumes of waste
• Open Dumps
– Pollutes groundwater & surface water
• Sanitary Landfills
– Site Selection
– Leachate
Composition of US municipal solid waste for 2003.
Sanitary Landfills
• Are designed to concentrate and contain
refuse without creating a hazard to public
health or safety
• Considerations:
Leachate is produced
Site Selection: Environmental justice
Monitoring Pollution
Federal Legislation
The most desirable landfill sites are in humid environments
where waste is buried above the water table and the surrounding
soil is relatively impermeable.
8 Ways Pollutants from Sanitary Landfill Sites May Enter
Multiple barrier design for a solid-waste sanitary landfill.
Any Questions?
Ch. 30 P#2
Hazardous Waste
• Waste that is classified as definitely or
potentially hazardous to the health of people
• Serious environmental problems
• Uncontrolled disposal sites could cause
serious health problems
• Need to develop safe disposal methods
Hazardous Waste Legislation
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
CERCLA (Superfund)
Environmental Audit
Secure Landfill
Surface Impoundment
Deep-Well Disposal
A secure landfill for hazardous chemical wastes. The impervious
liners, systems of drains and leak detectors are integral parts of
this design.
Alternatives to Hazardous Waste
• Source reduction, Recycling and Resources
recovery, Treatment, Incineration
• Advantages
Chemicals can be reused
Less toxic = less problems
Smaller volume of waste
Less stress of waste disposal sites
Ocean Dumping
Bad, Bad, Bad!!
• Types of Waste
Dredge spoils
Industrial wastes
Sewage sludge
Construction debris
Solid waste
• The most seriously affected areas are near shore
– Hum…like where a majority of the population resides?
Pollution Prevention
Identifying ways to prevent the generation
of waste, rather than finding ways to
dispose of it
Correct purchasing amounts
Better control of materials
Substituting non-toxic chemicals
Improving engineering
Any Questions?

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