Lecture 7

Sunday, May 09, 2010
T.A/Mohammad Al-Mermesh
BSc. PGC of clinical pharmacy
Nasal Preparations
Nasal preparations :
• contains adrenergic agents….decongestant activity on the
nasal mucosa
• most preparations are in solution form (nose drops or sprays)
• few are available as jellies e.g. Ayr saline nasal mist
• Packaged in dropper bottles or plastic spray bottles usually 1530 ml
of medications
• Patient should be counseled to discard the solution if it
becomes discolored
or contains precipitated matter
Nasal decongestant solutions are:
1. Aqueous
2. Isotonic to nasal fluids (0.9% NACL)
3. Buffered to maintain drug stability (5.5 pH normal for nasal
4. Preserved by antimicrobial preservative
5. Conc. Of adrenergic agents are quite low ranging 0.05%- 1.0%
6. Pediatric preparations have half strength of adult conc.
7. Intended for treatment of rhinitis of common cold, allergic
rhinitis including
hay fever and sinusitis.
8. Used for short period (3-5 days)
9. Examples of decongestants epinephrine,phenylephrine every
3-4 times a day( short acting), oxymetalasone every 12 hours
(long acting)
Alkaline nasal wash :
Sod.bicarb................. 50gm
Sod chloride.............. 50 gm
Sod biborate(borax).. 50 gm
Prepare 15 gm ( factor 15/150 = 0.1)
X 0.1
5 gm
5 gm
5 gm
1. Weigh 5 gm of each ingredient, then grind them to fine powders, then sieve them
2. Add the powders to each other gradually and mix them well.
3. Make them as packs (each = 5 gm)
Used as nasal wash in nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis
Role of each ingredient:
• Sodium chloride: osmotic agent (to adsorb the fluids in the nose)
• Sodium bicarbonate and Sodium borate
cleansing agent and to clean the nose
Used as nasal wash in nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis
2-5 gm to be dissolved in 120 ml of warm water and used as directed
3-5 gm in 120 ml of warm water u.d
Color of the label: red
Alkaline nasal wash
Five grams to be dissolved in a teacupful of warm water and
as directed
Keep in dry place
Ephedrine HCL
Ephedrine HCL................. 5gm
Sod chloride.................... 5 gm
Chlorobutol ………….…….. 5 gm
1000 ml
Prepare 100 gm ( factor 100/1000 = 0.1)
X 0.1
0.5 gm
0.5 gm
0.5 gm
100 ml
1. Dissolve chlorobutol by aid of gentle heat with large volume of D.W
2. Dissolve ephedrine HCL and sodium chloride by addition of some D.W, wash and adjust
the volume by D.W
3. Make filtration by using filter paper
Relieve of congestion
Role of each ingredient:
• Ephedrine HCL: vasoconstricting agent (decongestant)
• Sodium chloride: iso-osmotic agent
• Water: Vehicle
1-2 drops Bid or u.d
1-2 gtt. Bid a.u or u.d.
Color of the label: red
Ephedrine nasal drops 0.5% w/v
Two drops in each nostril twice daily
Keep in dry place
The end

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