Chapter 26.3 Primate Evolution

Report
SC.912.L.15.10 Identify basic trends in hominid
evolution from early ancestors six million years
ago to modern humans, including brain size,
jaw size, language, and manufacture of tools.
CHAPTER 26.3 PRIMATE
EVOLUTION
CIRCLE MAP
What do I
know
about
primates?
WHAT IS A PRIMATE?

Mammal with relatively long fingers and toes.

Nails instead of claws.

Arms that can rotate around shoulder joints.

A strong clavicle(collar bone), binocular vision (both eyes
used together).

Well developed cerebrum (largest portion of the brain-the
“thinking” part).
SKELETAL FEATURES OF PRIMATES

How are the skeletal features
of your hands different from
external features of the paws
of a dog or the hooves of a
horse?
SKELETAL FEATURES OF PRIMATES

Primates are bipedal, or capable of walking
on 2 limbs.

What is an advantage of being bipedal?

Having binocular vision? (paper)
TREE MAP- INSIDE COMPOSITIONS
PRIMATES
Prosimians
Hominoids

As we learn today…

Write some characteristics about the 3
groups of primates.

Fill in the missing information.
EVOLUTION OF PRIMATES

1) Prosimians:




Oldest living
primate group
Most are small and
active at nightnocturnal
i.e. lemurs, lorises,
and tarsiers
Tarsiers are known
as “living fossils”
because their
phenotypes have
changed since
their appearance
in the fossil record
40 mya.
EVOLUTION OF PRIMATES

2) Anthropoids:





Humanlike primates
i.e. New World
monkeys and Old
World monkeys
New World: squirrel
and spider monkeys
Old World: spend
time in trees but no
prehensile tail.
Prehensile tail: “fifth
hand”
EVOLUTION OF PRIMATES

3) Hominoids:



Lesser apes
i.e. gibbons,
orangutans,
chimps, gorillas,
humans
Walk upright, long
lower limbs,
opposable
thumbs
HOMININE EVOLUTION

The hominoids in the line led to
humans called hominines.

i.e. modern humans

Evolved to walk upright, walk on two
legs (bipedal), grasping thumbs, and
large brains.
MODERN HUMANS

Homo neanderthalensis:



arose 200,000 ya.
Lived in complex social groups,
controlled use of fires, and excellent
hunters.
Lived in Europe until 28,000 to 24,000
ya.
MODERN HUMANS

Homo sapiens:

Arrived in Middle East from Africa 100,000
ya.

50,000 ya began using stone blades for
tools.


Arrived in M.E., they found H.
neanderthalensis already there. Coexisted
for several thousand years. (no one knows
what happened to them)
H. sapiens: only surviving member of the
diverse hominine clade.
SKULL EVOLUTION


What changes can you see?
Why do you think this
happened?
DOUBLE BUBBLE-AS CLOSING


Complete a double bubble to compare human and
gorilla skeleton.
Connect the terms you learned today into your map.
H.
sapiens
H.
neanderthalensis

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