AI-01

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Knowledge?
 Intelligence?
Intelligent Machine?
What is A.I.?
 Knowledge
is
a
theoretical
or
practical
understanding of a subject or a domain.
 Knowledge is the sum of what is currently
Known.
 Someone’s
intelligence
is
their
ability
to
understand and learn things.
 Intelligence is the ability to think and understand
instead
of
doing
things
by
instinct
or
automatically.
Ø It gives some flexibility.
It does not specify
whether it is someone or something that has the
ability to think and understand.
 Thinking is the activity of using your brain to consider
a problem or to create an idea.
 In order to think, someone or something has to have a
brain – an organ that enables someone or something
to learn and understand things, to solve problems and
to make decisions.
 So we can now define Intelligence, is the ability to
learn and understand, to solve problems and to
make decisions.
Intelligence Machine?
Turing Imitation game
 So, a machine is thought intelligent if it can achieve
human-level performance in some situations.
 To build an intelligent machine, we have to capture,
organize and use human expert knowledge in some
problem area.
What is AI?
Views of AI fall into four categories:
1
Thinking
humanly
2
Acting
humanly
3
Thinking
rationally
4
Acting
rationally
What is AI?
(Thinking Humanly)
1
Thinking
humanly:
The cognitive
Modeling
Approach
A given program must have some way
of determining how human thinks. We
need to get inside the actual working of
human minds. There are two ways to do
this –
• Through introspection
• Trying to catch our own thoughts as
they go by.
• Through psychological experiments
• A child’s cognitive development.
What is AI?
(Acting Humanly)
Intelligent
2
Acting
humanly:
The Turing
Test Approach
machines
must
possess
the
following capabilities –
•Natural Language processing
•Knowledge representation
•Automated reasoning
•Machine learning
To pass the total Turing test, the intelligent
machine will need•Computer vision to perceive objects
•Robotics to manipulate objects and move
about
What is AI?
(Thinking Rationally)
3
Thinking
rationally:
The laws of
thought
approach
 Syllogisms
Socrates is a man;
All men are mortal
Therefore Socrates is mortal.
 Logic
These laws of thought were
supposed to govern the operation
of mind.
Their study initiated the field
called Logic
What is AI?
(Acting Rationally)
4
Acting
rationally:
The rational
agent approach
Rational behavior: doing the right
thing
The right thing: that which is
expected
to
maximize
goal
achievement, given the available
information

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[Negnevitsky, 2001] M. Negnevitsky “ Artificial Intelligence: A guide to
Intelligent Systems”, Pearson Education Limited, England, 2002.
[Russel, 2003] S. Russell and P. Norvig Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach Prentice Hall, 2003, Second Edition
[Patterson, 1990] D. W. Patterson, “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
and Expert Systems”, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J, USA,
1990.
[Minsky, 1974] M. Minsky “A Framework for Representing Knowledge”,
MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306, 1974.
[Hubel, 1995] David H. Hubel, “Eye, Brain, and Vision”
[Ballard, 1982] D. H. Ballard and C. M. Brown, “Computer Vision”,
Prentice Hall, 1982.
Thanks to all !!!

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