Genetically modified food

Report
Genetically modified food
Renata Zdanowska
& Anna Zalewska
Siedlce, 2011
Genetically Modified Food and Feed What are GMOs?
• Presently, it has become possible
to modify the genetic material of
living cells and organisms using
techniques
of
modern
biotechnology
called
gene
technology.
The
genetic
characteristics are being modified
artificially in order to give them a
new property (a plant's resistance
to a disease or insect, a plant's
tolerance
of
a
herbicide,
improvement of a food's quality or
nutritional value, increased crop
productivity.
Genetically Modified Food and Feed What are GMOs?
• Organisms, such as plants and animals, whose genetic material (DNA)
has been altered in such a way are called genetically modified
organisms (GMOs). Food and feed which contain or consist of such
GMOs, or are produced from GMOs, are called genetically modified
(GM) food or feed.
Development
• The first commercially grown genetically modified food was a
tomato (called FlavrSavr), which was modified to ripen without
softening, by Calgene and later by Monsanto. It was welcomed by
consumers who buy tomatoes at a low price. The Flavr Savr was
used by Zeneca to produce tomato paste which was sold in Europe
during the summer 1996. The labeling and pricing was made as a
market experiment. It proved, at the time, that European
consumers would accept genetically engineered food.
Growing GM crops
• Between 1997 and 2009, the total surface area
of land cultivated with GMOs had increased by
a factor of 80, from 17,000 km2 to 1,340,000
km2
• Although most GM crops are grown in North
America, in recent years there has been rapid
growth in the area sown in developing
countries. For instance in 2009 the largest
increase in crop area planted to GM crops
(soybeans) was in Brazil . There has also been
rapid and continuing expansion of GM cotton
varieties in India since 2002. (Cotton is a major
source of vegetable cooking oil and animal
feed.)
Rules on GMOs in the EU - Labelling
• Food and feed must carry a label which refers to the
presence of GMOs. However, these labelling
requirements do not apply to food/feed which
contains, consists of, or is produced from GMOs in a
proportion no higher than 0.9 % of the food/feed
ingredients considered individually and if this
presence is adventitious or technically unavoidable.
Labelling
•
Labelling provides information for consumers and
allows them to make an informed choice. In the case
of
pre-packaged
products
consisting
of,
or
containing, GMOs, the list of ingredients must
indicate "genetically modified" or "produced from
genetically modified [name of the organism]". In
the case of products without packaging these words
must still be clearly displayed in close proximity to
the product - such as a note on the supermarket
shelf.
Food products
which must be
labelled
Food which is a genetically modified
organism (GMO)
or which consists of GMOs:
- genetically modified sweetcorn (in tins)*;
- GM tomatoes**;
- GM potatoes**;
- raw salad from GM chicory** ;
- GM salmon**.
* = approved in the EU, but not available
** = the respective GM plants or GM animals are
not approved in the EU at present
Food products
which must be
labelled
Food, ingredients or additives,
which are produced from
GMOs:
At present, possible products include
those made from GM soy beans and
GM maize:
- margarine from GM soy bean
- oil from GM soy beans;
- cornflakes from GM corn;
- starch from GM corn;
- bread with GM soy protein or
GM soy flour;
- glucose with GM corn starch
- peanut puff snacks containing
GM corn starch.
Food product which
must be labelled
Food, ingredients and additives
which contain genetically modified
organisms:
This category applies primarily to food
produced with GM micro organisms, and
includes:
- wheat beer with GM yeast;
- yeast extract from GM yeast;
- yoghurt with GM lactic acid
bacteria;
- salami (raw sausages) with GM lactic
acid bacteria;
- blue cheese with GM moulds.
To date, no GM yeast, GM bacteria are
approved in the EU for use in food.
These Products Do Not Require Labelling
food products from animals fed
with GM plants
sweetener (aspartame), produced
with the help of GM micro organisms
dairy products from milk cows fed
with GM plants
honey containing pollen or nectar
from GM plants
GMO Health Risks
•Genetically modified foods: YES, you are already eating
them. NO, they are not safe to eat.
•Did you know... since 1996 Americans have been eating
genetically modified (GM) ingredients in most processed
foods.
•Did you know... GM plants, such as soybean, corn,
cottonseed, and canola have had foreign genes forced
into their DNA. And the inserted genes come from
species, such as bacteria and viruses, that have never
been in the human food supply.
•Did you know... genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
are not safe. They have been linked to thousands of toxic
and allergenic reactions, thousands of sick, sterile, and
dead livestock, and damage to virtually every organ and
system studied in lab animals
Growing evidence of harm from GMOs
• GM soya makes allergic reactions
• The level of soya allergen is as much as
7-times higher in cooked GM soy
compared to non-GM soya
• GM soya also contains an unexpected
allergen-type protein not found in
natural soya.
Controversy
While it is evident that there is a food supply
issue, the question is:
Can GM solve world hunger problems???
Several scientists argue that in order to meet the
demand for food in the developing world, a
second Green Revolution with increased use of
GM crops is needed.
Others argue that there is more than enough
food in the world and that the hunger crisis is
caused by problems in food distribution and
politics, not production.
Which side are you on?

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