Gilded Age: Unionization Objective #1 • Explain the effects of industrialization in the United States in the 18th century. – Changes in work and the workplace. – Immigration and child labor and their impact on the labor force. Objective #2 • Explain the effects of industrialization on work and the workplace. Objective #3 • Explain the impact of child labor and immigration on the work force in the 18th century. Objective #4 • Analyze the reasons for the rise and growth of labor organizations in the United States (Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, Congress of Industrial Organizations) including: – Unregulated working conditions – Laissez-faire policies toward big business – Violence toward supporters of organized labor The Changing American Labor Force By 1880, 5 million people worked in factories. What were the working conditions like? • Unsafe: 1882 - ____________ workers killed/week • Low wages: – Men averaged $_____ a year (1899) – Women averaged $_____ a year (1899) • • • • • Long hours: 12 hr. days/6 days per wk. Unsafe machinery ______________________________ Workers had few rights Workers were easily replaced. Workers Protest • As companies pooled their strength, workers realized they needed to as well for their voice to be heard. • Hidden protests: work slow downs, sick days, disciplining the “over-achiever” • Increased use of the strike in the late 19th c. Unionization Nationally • Unionization movement began again after Civil War. • 1866: _____________________________ – _________________ members by early 1870s – Several labor unions combined into large national union – _____________________________ also included – Call for _________ hour day – Disagreements and Depression of 1873 killed it. Knights of Labor Terence V. Powderly An injury to one is the concern of all! Goals of the Knights of Labor ù _____________________ workday. ù Abolition of ___________________ labor. ù Equal pay for _____________________. ù ____________________ in the workplace. ù Prohibition of contract foreign labor. ù Open to all laborers except for the idle and corrupt The American Federation of Labor: 1886 Samuel Gompers How the AF of L Would Help the Workers ù Catered to the ____________________ worker. ù Pushed for __________________________. ù Used the strike to its advantage ù Saw average workweek drop from 54 hours a week to 49 hours a week ù Saw pay increase from $17.50 a week to $24. AFL Grows • 1900: ___________________ members • Rejected ________________________ The Socialists Eugene V. Debs International Workers of the World (“Wobblies”) “Big Bill” Haywood of the IWW Violence was justified to overthrow capitalism. Mother Jones: “The Miner’s Angel” Mary Harris. Organizer for the United Mine Workers. One of the founding members of the I. W. W. in 1905. Led ______________ ____________ to White House in 1903 Great Railroad Strike (1877) • Nationwide railroad strike over __________________ • Workers destroyed railroad property • Federal troops sent in • ________________ die • Business leaders saw this as the beginning of a _________________ Haymarket Riot (1886) • Chicago police try to disperse • Bomb explodes killing 7 police • Eight anarchists tried and convicted (3 were executed) • Businesses now try to crush unions • Hurt unionization in mainstream America--linked to ________________ End of Knights of Labor • Haymarket fear, disagreements over membership of blacks and women, unauthorized strikes killed the Knights of Labor by 1890s Homestead Strike (1892) • Owned by ____________________ • Carnegie locked out workers when they refused a wage decrease • Armed guards and fences protected the building • Gun battle brought in 8000 troops to crush the strike and the union Pullman Strike (1894) • Pullman required workers live in a _____________________________. • 1893: Pullman cuts wages by 1/3, laid off workers and did not cut rents and prices • Demanded increased output • Pullman union leader was _____________________________ Pullman (1894) Continued • Major strike and sympathy strikes • Pullman Co. and Railroad companies ask federal government to get court injunction to end strike • _________________________ sent in troops to enforce injunction Violence at Pullman • Violence burning of cars, $340,000 in damage, death • Strike collapses and several leaders were arrested • Supreme Court ruled in 1895 injunctions to stop strikes were illegal Working Class Setbacks • Workers lost many battles – Owners often supported by _____________________________________ – Use of _________________________ – Unskilled workers could be replaced – Economic depressions in 1873 and 1893 • But workers kept organizing – Over _____________________________ by 1914 Women in Workplace • 5 million by 1900, 8.5 million by 1920 • Ignored by most unions (________% in unions in 1920) • ______________________________ founded in 1903 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory • Many women in NYC garment industry – 16-25 yrs old, of Italian or Jewish descent – 56-hr weeks – $6/week • Over 600 shirtwaist factories employed 30,000 workers • Conditions: overcrowding, women renting machines, paying for electricity, breaks minimized, safety shortcuts due to costs QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Women strike! • 1909: Women want better pay, working conditions, don’t want to pay costs • Mass strike in 1909 • Strikers fired, arrested, etc. • ________________________ support of factories meant they did very little to improve working conditions Out of the Ashes __________ membership surged. New strict ___________ were passed. Tougher ________________ of sweatshops. Growing momentum of support for women’s __________________.