The Telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. The Western Union Telegraph Co. controlled the telegraph. Trained operators transmitted the messages sent into Morse Code. The telegraph was mostly used by shopkeepers and reporters. It allowed orders and business to be conducted over long distances. In the 1860’s, the telegraph linked the United States and Europe. Alexander Graham Bell, born in 1847, was the inventor of the telephone. Bell was interested in the education of deaf people, this lead to the invention of the microscope, which today is called the telephone. The telephone was invented in the 1870’s with help from inventor Elisha Gray. The telephone is a wire-based electrical system. The invention of the telephone lead to Bell’s idea to improve the telegraph. New ways of selling goods starting in 1863 when mail to homes begun. In the 1890’s, the U.S Post Office expanded into rural areas. Merchants could now sell goods across the country rather than just in their village. The mailing system helped chain spores grow rapidly. Companies started publishing catalogs that offered a wide range of goods. Rural families now had a wide assortment of goods not found in country stores. Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847. He was a great American inventor and business man. His inventions included the light bulb and the phonograph. Also, Edison helped improve and develop the motion picture camera, the stock ticker and the typewriter. Edison was made known for his work with electricity and working with light bulbs. Edison’s labs were located in Menlo Park and New Jersey. Edison’s Famous statement was “ Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. The Assembly Line Henry Ford pioneered a new less expensive way to manufacture cars, called the Assembly Line. An assembly line is a manufacturing process. The assembly line reduced production costs allowing cars to be made faster and cheaper. Henry Fords installed the first conveyer belt-based assembly line in his car factory in Ford’s Highland Park, Michigan plant, around 1913-1914. George Eastman In 1888, George Eastman invented dry, transparent and flexible, photographic film ( or rolled photograph film). He also invented the Kodak cameras that could be use the new film. George Eastman was an avid photographer and became the founder of the Eastman Kodak company. John Thurman started a horse drawn( door to door service) vacuum system in St. Louis, similar to Booth’s. His vacuuming services were priced at $4 per visit in 1903. He invented his own gasoline powered vacuum cleaner in 1899. Some historians consider it the first motorized vacuum cleaner. Thurman’s machine was patented on October 3, 1899 ( patent #634,042). Mining The introduction of the steam engine greatly facilitated the removal of water and the enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted Steam power The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines. Other changes made during this time period were the use of: Chemicals, machine tools, gas lighting Canals, roads and railways. Industrial society was very static and often cruel to workers who made low wages, worked long hours, and toiled in unsafe working conditions. Child labor was often used as families needed the income and children worked for little money and could get into places to small for adults. George Westinghouse Westinghouse was an entrepreneur and a famous engineer responsible for a lot of electrical inventions. Westinghouse was an engineer who invented the railroad air brake which made rail travel safe for the first time. Westinghouse was one of Edison’s main rivals in the American Electrical System. Henry Ford Mass produced the first mass production automobile called the Model T in 1908. Almost a million were sold that year. Ford is credited with inventing the assembly line and mass production which made goods cheaper, faster and affordable for the average American Ford increased wages for his workers and shortened the work week so they could afford and use cars.