GCEP Status Review - The University of Texas at Austin

Report
2012 Advisory Panel
The Challenge of Algal Fuel:
Monetizing the Entire Algal Biomass
Rhykka Connelly
Center for Electromechanics
The University of Texas at Austin
12/4/2012
Timeline of the Biomass Program
Sugar Cane
2005
2007
2009
2012
2014
Sugar Cane Production
• The extraction rate should be at ≥ 9% to reach ethanol producing targets
• In reality, the conventional extraction rate ranges only between 5-6%
• Need extraction to improve by 33-45%
The CEM Solution
Marx Bank High Voltage Generator
The CEM Solution
Brix values of extracted juice (100 pulses)
1.2
Average Brix
difference: 0.37
1.0
Brix
0.8
Test
0.6
Control
0.4
0.2
0.0
A
B
• Electroporation of sugar cane cell walls
• Extraction improved by 37% on average
C
Avg
Algae
Sugar Cane
2005
Algae
2007
Algae
Algae
Chlorella sp.
lipid
bodies
Algae Structure and Products
The CEM Solution:
Breaking Algae with Electric Fields
• Convenient, adjustable voltage source
• Does not provide optimum wave shape
• Not efficient or practical for field use
The CEM Solution:
Multidisciplinary Approach
• Algae Group
– ≈50 faculty, researchers, and students
– Plus larger group of researchers in associated, related fields
• Multidisciplinary
– Biologists, biochemists, physicists, mechanical engineers, electrical
engineers, chemical engineers, and environmental engineers
• Focused on Fuel – But Working on Cash Flow from CoProducts along the Way
– Complete Process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Algae selection – key driver of economics
Growth—as needed
Harvesting
Dewatering
Lysing
Separation
Metrology – without good process measurements, there is no process control
Life cycle analysis – program focus, regulatory acceptance
Algae Processing Options
concentrate
algae
break algae
product
recovery
lipids/oils
for fuel
centrifuge
solvent
extraction
centrifugation
drum drier
pH-driven
flocculation
expeller
press
hollow fiber
membrane
carotenoids
chemical
flocculation
electric
field
sonication
direct
transesterification
carbohydrates
bioflocculation
dissolved
air flotation
supercritical
fluid
mixotrophic
growth
bead-milling
solvent phase
partitioning
omega 3-6-9
fatty acids
clean biomass
for fertilizer/animal feed
Algae Processing Options
concentrate
algae
break algae
product
recovery
lipids/oils
for fuel
centrifuge
solvent
extraction
centrifugation
drum drier
pH-driven
flocculation
expeller
press
hollow fiber
membrane
carotenoids
chemical
flocculation
electric
field
sonication
direct
transesterification
carbohydrates
bioflocculation
dissolved
air flotation
supercritical
fluid
mixotrophic
growth
bead-milling
solvent phase
partitioning
omega 3-6-9
fatty acids
clean biomass
for fertilizer/animal feed
The CEM Solution
concentrate
algae
break algae
product
recovery
lipids/oils
for fuel
centrifuge
solvent
extraction
centrifugation
drum drier
pH-driven
flocculation
expeller
press
hollow fiber
membrane
carotenoids
chemical
flocculation
electric
field
sonication
direct
transesterification
carbohydrates
bioflocculation
dissolved
air flotation
supercritical
fluid
mixotrophic
growth
bead-milling
solvent phase
partitioning
omega 3-6-9
fatty acids
clean biomass
for fertilizer/animal feed
Algae Processing Development
Solid State Lysing Power Supply
• Patents filed
• Paper* published
* S. Bae, A. Kwasinski, M. M. Flynn, and R. E. Hebner, “High-Power Pulse
Generator with Flexible Output Pattern,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics,
25(7): 1675-1684.
Algae Processing Development: Creating
Analytical Tools for the Industry
Nile Red
• Industry standard for measuring
lipids in total
Identification of lipids by NMR
Simultaneous detection of lipids by
ELSD and mass spectrometer
• Non-specific for non-polar lipids
(hydrocarbons, some
carotenoids, triacyglycerols,
diglycerides, some lipoproteins),
thus cannot render an accurate
profile of lipids to determine
downstream processing
C. M. Beal, M. E. Webber, R. S. Ruoff, and R. E.
Hebner, “Lipid Analysis of Neochloris
oleoabundans by Liquid State NMR,” 2010,
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 106:4.
Jones, J., Manning, S., Montoya, M., Keller, K.,
& Poenie, M. Extraction of algal lipids and their
analysis by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Journal of
the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2012, 89, 1371–
1381.
Algae Processing Development: Creating
Analytical Tools for the Industry
Mass and Energy Balance
Processing Flowchart
Cultivation
Batch Record (AC)
CEM
Harvest:
Batch Record
(AH)
EWRE
effluent recycled back to pond
* Beal CM, Hebner RE, Romanovicz DK, Connelly RL.
“Progression of lipid profile and cell structure in a
research-scale production pathway for algal
biocrude,” Renewable Energy. 2012, 50:86-93.
Samples are collected before and after
each processing step.
Volume, biomass, and lipid content are
measured. Cellular morphologies are
monitored.
Lysing:
Batch Record
(AL)
CEM
* Beal C, Smith C, Webber M, Ruoff R, Hebner R (2011)
A framework to report the production of renewable
diesel from algae. BioEnergy Res 4:36–60
* Beal CM, Stillwell AS, King CW, Cohen S, Berberoglu
H, Bhattarai RP; Connelly RL, Webber ME, Hebner RE.
“Energy return on investment for algal biofuel
production coupled with wastewater treatment,”
Water Environment Research. 2012, 84(9):692-710.
Extraction:
Batch Record (AE)
SRP
final biomass
final oil
CEM Algae Processing Technologies
concentration/dewatering unit
cell breaking unit
oil/product recovery unit
Growth and Processing Analysis via UT Technologies
C.M. Beal, R.E. Hebner, M.E. Webber, R.S. Ruoff,
A.F. Seibert. The energy return on investment for
algal biocrude: results for a research production
facility. BioEnergy Research. 2011, pp. 1–22
Transfer of CEM Algae Processing
Technologies to Industry
Assembled Mobile Biomass Processing Unit
Algae Program Publications
C.M. Beal, R.E. Hebner, M.E. Webber, “Thermodynamic analysis of algal biocrude production,” Energy. 2012, 44(1):925-943.
C.M. Beal, M.E. Webber, R.S. Ruoff, R.E. Hebner, “Lipid Analysis of Neochloris oleoabundans by Liquid State NMR,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering,
2010, 106(4).
S. Bae, A. Kwasinski, M.M. Flynn, R.E. Hebner, “High-Power Pulse Generator with Flexible Output Pattern,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, 2010,
25(7):1675-1684.
C.M. Beal, R.E. Hebner, D.K. Romanovicz, R.L. Connelly, “Progression of lipid profile and cell structure in a research-scale production pathway for algal
biocrude,” Renewable Energy. 2012, 50:86-93.
C. Beal, C. Smith, M. Webber, R. Ruoff, R. Hebner, “A framework to report the production of renewable diesel from algae,” BioEnergy Res. 2011,
4:36–60.
C.M. Beal, A.S. Stillwell, C.W. King, S. Cohen, H. Berberoglu, R.P. Bhattarai, R.L. Connelly, M.E. Webber, R.E. Hebner, “Energy return on investment for
algal biofuel production coupled with wastewater treatment,” Water Environment Research. 2012, 84(9):692-710.
R.V. Pearsall, R.L. Connelly, M.E. Fountain, C.S. Hearn, M.D. Werst, R.E. Hebner, E.F. Kelley EF, “Electrically dewatering microalgae,” IEEE Trans.
Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2011, 18(5): 1578-1583.
J. Jones, C.-H. Lee, J. Wang, M. Poenie, “Use of anion exchange resins for one-step processing of algae from harvest to biofuel,” Energies, 2012,
5(7):2608-2625.
J. Jones, S. Manning, M. Montoya, K. Keller, M. Poenie, ”Extraction of algal lipids and their analysis by HPLC and mass spectrometry,” Journal of the
American Oil Chemists' Society, 2012, 89, 1371–1381.
A. Ozkan, K. Kinney, H. Berberoglu, “Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor,”
Bioresour. Technol., 2012, 114:542-548.
Algae Program Publications
A. Wileman, A. Ozkan, H. Berberoglu, “Rheological properties of algae slurries for minimizing harvesting energy requirements in biofuel production,”
Bioresour. Technol., 104 (2012), pp. 432-439.
H. Berberoglu, J. Jay, L. Pilon, “Effect of nutrient media on photobiological hydrogen production by Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413,” Int. J. Hydrogen
Energy, 33 (2008), pp. 1172-1184.
Murphy T., Berberoglu H., “Temperature fluctuation and evaporative loss Rate in an algae biofilm photobioreactor,” ASME J. Solar Energy
Engineering, 2012, vol. 134, pp. 011002-1-9.
Murphy T., Berberoglu H., “Effect of algae pigmentation on photobioreactor productivity and scale-up: a light transfer perspective,” J. Quantitative
Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 2011, vol.112, pp. 2826-2834.
Berberoglu H., Pilon L., “Maximizing the solar to H2 energy conversion efficiency of outdoor photobioreactors using mixed cultures,” International J.
of Hydrogen Energy, 2010, vol. 35, pp. 500-510.
Berberoglu H., Gomez P., Pilon L., 2009, “Radiation characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chorococcum littorale and Chlorella sp. used for
CO2 fixation and biofuel production, J. Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, vol. 110, pp. 1879-1893.
Berberoglu H., Pilon L., Melis A., 2008, “Radiation characteristics of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and its truncated chlorophyll antenna
transformants,” International J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, pp 6467-6483.
Berberoglu H., Pilon L., Jay J., 2008, “Effect of nutrient media on photobiological hydrogen production of Anabaena variabilis ATCC
29413,” International J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, pp. 1172-1184.
Berberoglu H., Barra N., Jay J., Pilon L., 2008, “Growth, CO2 consumption H2 production of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U under different
irradiances and CO2 concentrations,” J. Applied Microbiology, vol. 104, pp. 105-121.
Algae Program Intellectual Property
Ozkan A, Kinney K, Katz, K. Novel, “Algae biofilm photobiotreactor for reduced energy and water usage,” Energy Systems Analysis. 2010, 5:75-80.
R.L. Connelly, R.V. Pearsall, R. Enhkbaatar, “Algal extracts as a wound healing agent,” UTID 5935-CON disclosure submitted Oct. 2012.
P. Kipp, R.L. Connelly, F. Siebert, “Non-dispersive process for insoluble oil recovery from aqueous solutions,” submitted Jan. 2012, 20120184759.
A.F. Seibert, M. Poenie, P. Kipp, R.L. Connelly, R.E. Hebner, M.D. Werst, L.E. Katz, K.A. Kinney, “Continuous oil recovery from growth environments,”
UTID 5623-SEI CIP submitted Oct. 2011, provisional 61/006,342, filed Nov. 2011.
P. Kipp, R.L. Connelly, F. Siebert, M. Poenie, R.E. Hebner, M.D. Werst, L.E. Katz, K.A. Kinney, “Non-dispersive process for insoluble oil recovery from
aqueous solutions,” submitted Oct. 2011, 20120208247.
R.E. Hebner, K.R. Davey, M.D. Werst, R.L. Connelly, “Electromechanical lysing of algae cells,” submitted July 2011, 20120021481.
R.E. Hebner, M.D. Werst, A.F. Seibert, L.E. Katz, K.A. Kinney, M. Poenie, C.M. Beal, R.L. Connelly, “On-line test equipment and analysis procedure to
determine material balance in algal processing for biofuel production,” provisional 61/471,597.
R.L. Connelly, R.V. Pearsall, P. Enhkbaatar, B.J. Morrison, R.E. Hebner, M.D. Werst, A.F. Seibert, L.E. Katz, K.A. Kinney, M. Poenie, “Organic fertilizer
derived from processed algal biomass,” UTID 5936-CON submitted Jan. 2011.
R.L. Connelly, R.V. Pearsall, D. Schmid, “A method to extract and stably maintain carotenoids from algae, fungi, or bacteria,” UTID 5910-CON
submitted Nov. 2010.
R.E. Hebner, M.D. Werst, A.F. Seibert, L.E. Katz, K.A. Kinney, M. Poenie, R.L. Connelly, R.V. Pearsall, T.A. Beets, “A continuous process to concentrate,
lyse, and extract chemicals of interest, including omega fatty acids, from algae or cyanobacteria grown phototrophically or heterotrophically,” UTID
5886-HEB submitted Sept. 2010.
R.L. Connelly, R.V. Pearsall, “TLC lipid quantification kit,” UTID 5835-CON submitted Aug. 2010.
Focus for the Future – Leveraging
UT Expertise and Resources
Sugar Cane
2005
Algae
2007
Education and Development of Industry Standards
2012
Focus for the Future – Leveraging
UT Expertise and Resources
Sugar Cane
2005
Algae
2007
Education and Services
2012 - 2013
• Establishment of the UT-Science and Technology Facility
• Monthly Industrial Recovery & Analysis of Biomass Oils Workshops
• In collaboration with the UTEX Algae Culture Collection Workshop
series
• students to start-ups to established companies
• Analytical Service Center
• Provide innovative analytical support to the industry
Educating the Algae Industry
Industrial Recovery & Analysis of Biomass Oils Workshop
• Tour of the UT-ASTF facility
• Presentations detailing
current and cutting-edge
processing technologies
• Biochemistry of algae and
popular and cutting-edge lipid
analysis techniques
• Hands-on laboratory
instruction to extract algal
products and perform detailing
analyses
Providing Innovative Analytical
Services to the Algae Industry
UT-ASTF ANALYTICAL SERVICE CENTER
• LIPID EXTRACTION
• HPLC/MS AND GC/MS LIPID PROFILING
• SPECTROSCOPY
WEBSITE: algaebiofuels.utexas.org
EMAIL: [email protected]
OFFICE: 512.232.1633
• HIGH RESOLUTION MICROSCOPY
• R & D SERVICES TO OPTIMIZE GROWTH AND
PROCESSING RELATIVE TO TARGET LIPIDS
1 UNIVERSITY STATION R7000
10100 BURNET RD, EME133
AUSTIN, TX 78758
Focus for the Future – Leveraging
UT Expertise and Resources
Sugar Cane
2005
Algae
2007
Education and Services +
2013 - 2015
• Establish Industry Analytical Standards for measuring algal biomass and products
• Discussed with the international community
• Follow-up expected with NIST, DOE, and EU
• Industrial Consortium
• Proposed by current sponsors
• Assessing feasibility
• Processing R & D
• Collaborative with Industrial Sponsors
Algae – Providing Analytical Protocols and
Measurement Standards to the Algae Industry
With $ millions invested and 100’s of developers, why is a positive EROI always 5
years away?
•
Non-standardized measurements of virtually every parameter – each method
can produce wildly different results on the same culture
• Cell density
• Cell count
• Gravity settling
• Dry weight with and without centrifugation to remove salts
• Filtering
Algae – Providing Analytical Protocols and
Measurement Standards to the Algae Industry
With $ millions invested and 100’s of developers, why is a positive EROI always 5
years away?
• Total oil content measurement challenges
• Nile red (non-specifically binds to a variety of neutral lipid compounds)
• Gravimetric (anything recovered in a particular solvent – non-specific to
fuel or high value products)
• HPLC/MS – detailed quantitative lipid profiling of specific lipid classes
and species of interest
• GC/MS – detailed quantification of fatty acids
• Because UT has developed and published advanced analytical tools that
define and quantify specific algae products for the industry, UT is in a unique
position to help define analytical measurement standards that the industry
can adopt
Algae – Providing Analytical Protocols and
Measurement Standards to the Algae Industry
With $ millions invested and 100’s of developers, why is a positive EROI always 5
years away?
• Incomplete knowledge of membrane and cell wall electrical and mechanical
properties
• Many inefficient cell breaking approaches are utilized in the industry instead
of an optimized approach
• Oil-in-water emulsions form from broken algae debris – affects recovery of
the oil/products
•
Because UT/CEM has 40+ years expertise in assessing electrical and mechanical
properties of materials, UT is in a unique position to characterize algal membrane
and cell wall dynamics during processing to optimize recovery of algal products
The UT Approach to Define Analytical Protocols and
Measurement Standards for the Algae Industry
• Understand cell structures and physiology
– Tensile strength and electromechanical properties of cell
membranes and walls
– Physiological defense mechanisms against predators
– Impediments to oil extraction
• Standards for oil content and growth
– Government-industry-university metrology consortium
• International participation beneficial
– Standard reference “algae cell” to validate metrology
Summary
• Algae represent a viable source of alternative fuels, plus
high-value products
• CEM has developed and transferred to industry costeffective processing technologies and continues to develop
additional processing capabilities
• CEM is educating the algae industry
• CEM is in a unique position to lead the effort to drive the
industry into profitability by developing measurement
standards for the industry

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